When did the Crusaders take Jerusalem?
How did the first crusade come about?
In the year 1096 started the first of several crusadeswith which the Holy Land was to be conquered. Tens of thousands of young men set off from all over Western Europe again and again for two hundred years. They moved east to reclaim the Holy Land for Christians.
1095 requested Pope Urban II to liberate Jerusalem and the Holy Land. The Muslim Seljuks had invaded there. Now they threatened Byzantium and the Emperor of Byzantium (Alexios I) asked for support. As early as the 7th century, Palestine had been conquered by the Arabs and was thus under Muslim rule.
Conquest of Jerusalem
1099 the Crusaders captured Jerusalem. The conquerors brutally attacked the city's residents and slaughtered them. Jerusalem remained under Christian rule for 88 years. Four Crusader States were established: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch, the Counties of Edessa and Tripoli. Together they were called "Outremer" (French: outre mer = beyond the sea).
A total of six were found by 1270 more crusades instead of defending the crusader states. However, these crusades were not very successful. Little by little the Christian conquerors had to withdraw again. In 1291 Acre fell, the last place of retreat for the Crusaders.
The epoch of the Christian crusades
The epoch of the crusades lasted from 1095 to 1291. With the crusades, Christian armies tried to liberate the holy places from Islamic rule. Jerusalem in particular has long been the destination of Christian pilgrims. With the advance of the Seljuks, the pilgrimages had also become more dangerous. When Alexios asked Pope Urban II for help, he saw it as an opportunity to regain power over the Byzantine Church. So Urban not only sent auxiliary troops, but also called for a crusade. This appeal did not fail to have its effect.
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