Punjabi is an ethnic group
ACCORD - Austrian Center for Country of Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation
August 12, 2014
This document is based on a time-limited search of publicly available documents currently available to ACCORD and has been prepared in accordance with the standards of ACCORD and the Common EU Guidelines for processing Country of Origin Information (COI) created.
This answer does not represent an opinion on the content of an application for asylum or other international protection. All translations are working translations for which no guarantee can be given.
We recommend looking through the original materials used. Original documents that are not available online or free of charge can be viewed or requested from ACCORD.
According to the World Factbook of the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (last update June 20, 2014), the Punjabi ethnic group makes up 44.68 percent of the total population of Pakistan (CIA, June 20, 2014). In a report published in August 2007 by the New Delhi-based NGO Asian Center for Human Rights (ACHR), this proportion is estimated at 44.15 percent (ACHR, August 2007, p.13).
In a reference work on ethnic groups around the world published in 1998, cultural anthropologist David Levinson writes that Pakistan comprises the four provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab and the Northwest Frontier Province (today's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, ACCORD note) and the ethnic composition of the country includes those regions related groups, Sindhis, Baluch, Punjabi and Pashtuns, correspond. As Levinson points out in the Punjab Province section, the Punjabi are the largest ethnic group in the region. Nationwide, their number is around 85 million or their share of the total population is 66 percent:
"Pakistan is politically divided into four provinces - Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab, and the North-West Frontier Province - and the ethnic composition matches the four groups associated with these regions - Sind, Baluch, Punjabi, and Pashtun. [...]
The Punjab is the fertile agricultural region that lies in both Pakistan and India. The Punjabi are the major ethnic group in the region and number about 85 million in Pakistan, or about 66% of the national population. " (Levinson, 1998, p.267)
In a report from July 2009, C. Christine Fair, political scientist and lecturer at Georgetown University, USA, wrote that there are numerous ethnic groups in Pakistan that tend to be concentrated in specific provinces. For example, the Punjabi tend to be concentrated in the Punjab Province. Of course there has been significant migration within the country, so that ethnic Punjabi, for example, can now be found all over Pakistan:
“Pakistan is home to numerous ethnic groups, who tend to be clustered in specific provinces, e.g .: Punjabis tends to be clustered in the Punjab, Pashtuns in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP), the Baluch in Baluchistan and Sindhis in Sindh. Of course, there has been tremendous migration within Pakistan. Karachi, in Sindh, is now home to more Pashtuns than any other city in Pakistan and ethnic Punjabis are settled throughout Pakistan. " (Fair, July 10, 2009, p.1)
1) Does it happen among the Punjabi that men are killed by the woman's family as a result of a love affair with a woman? Do honor killings affect more men than women among the Punjabi?
Dr. Stephen M. Lyon, lecturer at the Department of Anthropology at the University of Durham, United Kingdom and author of numerous publications on Pakistan (and Punjab in particular), replied in an email dated July 26, 2014 when asked whether the Punjabi are men who would have an illicit relationship with a woman ran the risk of an honor killing by the woman's family, for that to happen. However, this would not be an honor killing in the strict sense, as the killing does not really restore family honor. However, the murder leads to a similar result, namely that other men are prevented from getting closer to the other women in the family. Therefore, it is believed that such a murder could help protect the dishonored girl's sisters. Normally, in such cases, the woman is also given some kind of house arrest or other punishment:
"Yes, this happens. It would not strictly be an honor killing since it doesn’t actually restore the honor of the family, but it has a similar result in deterring other men from coming around the other ladies of the family. So people think it can help to keep the sisters of the dishonored girl safer. It would usually go along with some confinement or punishment of the girl as well. Often people will keep a girl restricted for some time and then arrange a marriage with a relative who can be persuaded to overlook whatever she’s been accused of doing. " (Lyon, July 26th 2014)
Dr. Lyon also writes that there are more honor killings in Punjab than in other provinces, as it is the most populous province. However, the number of reported honor killings could be very misleading. The figures reported from Balochistan, for example, are extremely low in view of the importance of the honor associated with women and ancestry there. He has heard that the Punjabi are more likely than the Pashtuns that the men who have an illicit love affair will be killed. However, this could in turn be related to the reporting. To the best of his knowledge, no systematic analysis of the differences between ethnic groups on the subject of honor killings has been carried out. What are usually found are rough numbers of kills. In order to be able to make a meaningful comparison between the ethnic groups, one must take into account the differences in the size of the groups. He also suspects that the rural-urban differences or the differences between social classes are more revealing than the differences between different ethnic groups:
"There are more honor killings in Punjab than other provinces because it's the province with the biggest population. The number of reported honor killings can be very misleading, however. I read a recent report in Pakistan which put the lowest figure of honor killings in Balochistan. This is almost certainly a problem of reporting rather than actual killings. Rural Balochis control their ladies fairly closely and have the infrastructure to do so, but even so, the reported numbers are extremely low given the importance of ladies ’and lineage honor. I have heard that Punjabis are more likely to kill the men involved in illicit love relationships than Pukhtuns, but again this may be a matter of reporting. As far as I know, no one has ever done a systematic analysis of the difference between ethnic groups on this topic. What you tend to see are raw numbers of killings and given the gross differences in population size between the ethnic groups, that must be adjusted for any meaningful comparison to be made. I also suspect that the rural and urban and class differences are probably more revealing than ethnic differences. " (Lyon, July 26th 2014)
In the sources currently available to ACCORD, no further specific information on the above-mentioned issues could be found in the context of the time-limited research. In the following you will find more general information that does not go into the ethnicity of those involved / affected.
In an older book on honor killings (translated into English in 2008), Unni Wikan, a social anthropologist at the University of Oslo, mentions that men could also be victims of honor killings. According to official figures, around a third of the victims in Pakistan are men, but this proportion varies from region to region. The ratio of male to female victims is highest in the tribal areas in the Northwest Frontier Province (today's province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, note ACCORD) and in the province of Balochistan. Around 40 percent of all victims there are male:
"[...] men too can be victims of honor killings. In Pakistan, official figures indicate that roughly one-third of the victims are men, but that proportion varies from region to region. The ratio of men to women is highest in the tribal areas in the North West Frontier Province and Baluchistan. Here, male victims constitute about 40 percent of all cases. " (Wikan, 2008, p.102)
The Australian Refugee Review Tribunal (RRT) writes in an older questionnaire response from November 2006 that although the far greater number of cases involve women, men too are victims of honor killings in Pakistan. This is sometimes reflected in the local names for the practice of honor killing. In Punjab the practice is called "kala kali", where "kala" refers to the man and "kali" to the woman. The term "karo kari" is often used as a short description for the practice of honor killing in Pakistan in general:
"Although a far great number of women than men are victims of the institution of honor killing, men too are killed under the authority of this custom throughout Pakistan. Local names for the custom of honor killing sometimes reflect this. In the North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) the custom of tor tora ‘refers to honor killings in NWFP where the victims are accused of illicit relationship (tor being man; tora being woman)’. In the Punjab it is kala kali (‘kala being man; kali being woman’) and in the Sindh it is karo kari (‘karo being man; kari being woman’); and karo kari is often used as a shorthand title for referring to honor killing in Pakistan generally. ” (RRT, November 16, 2006)
A representative of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, an independent non-profit organization, is quoted in a slightly older article in The Atlantic, a US magazine focusing on (foreign) political issues, published in September 2011 that more than 70 percent of honor killings are female and only 30 percent are male (The Atlantic, September 28, 2011).
The Indian news agency Press Trust of India (PTI) reported in an article from August 2014 that, according to police, a young woman and her husband were killed in Punjab Province because they married against the will of the woman's family. As the article states, the woman's brothers, along with other accomplices, tracked down the couple, first tortured them and then shot them:
"Lahore: In yet another case of honor killing, a young woman and her husband have been brutally murdered for marrying against the wishes of her family in Punjab, police said today. According to the police, Zaheer Iqbal of Ashraf Town Chakwal, some 300 kilometers from here, had an affair with Mariam Bibi of neighboring town Karar. Both were in their early 20s. Zaheer's family sent marriage proposal to her family but they did not agree to it. About two weeks ago Zaheer and Mariam contracted court marriage. The girl's family got a kidnapping case registered against Zaheer, his parents and brothers. A local Urdu daily's Chakwal correspondent told PTI that the brothers of girl yesterday traced the whereabouts of the couple and brought them to their locality. The couple was subjected to severe torture by her brothers - Yasir and Nasir - and their accomplices. ‘The culprits tied the couple and cut the legs of Zaheer and arms of Mariam with an ax before shooting them down,’ he said. " (PTI, August 3, 2014)
The Associated Press (AP) news agency wrote in an article in June 2014 that police said a 17-year-old girl and her husband were killed by the woman's family in Punjab Province. Previously, the couple would have married against the woman's will. The alleged perpetrators are the woman's parents, two uncles and her grandfather:
"A 17-year-old girl and her husband were killed by her family for marrying without his consent, and another young woman was burned alive by a man for refusing his proposal in Pakistan's eastern Punjab province, police said Sunday. Muafia Bibi and her husband Sajjad Ahmed, 30, were killed in Satrah village Friday night, allegedly by her parents, two uncles and her grandfather, said Asghar Ali, the area police chief. He said the couple was hacked to death with a butcher's knife, and that all five suspects have been apprehended. Ali said the couple married on June 19, and that the family had lured them back home by saying it accepted the marriage. He said it was Ahmed's third marriage, with the first ending in divorce and his second wife leaving him after he married Bibi. " (AP, June 29, 2014)
In its annual report from March 2014 (reporting year 2013), the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HCRP) writes that in May 2013 in Toba Rek Singh, Punjab province, the bodies of two young people who ran away from home were found to have a love marriage. It was suspected that the girl's relatives killed her and the boy who ran away with her:
"In a Toba Tek Singh village, bodies of two youths, who had run away from their homes to contract love marriage a few days earlier, were recovered from two nearby villages on May 28. It was suspected that the girl's relatives had killed her and the boy she had ran away with. " (HRCP, March 2014, p.178-179)
Please also take into account the information contained under sub-question two.
2) How are women who have "tarnished" family honor through a love affair with a man treated by the Punjabi?
When asked how a Punjab woman is treated by her family if she has a love affair that the family does not want, Dr. Lyon in its e-mail from July 26, 2014 that this depends on the family and the status of the man. If the woman comes from an educated, urban and not too religiously (“not too religiously enthusiastic”) household and chooses a man as a partner whom her family would have chosen, the relationship could be accepted by her family (“can be negotiated successfully “). Nonetheless, it was a potentially dangerous case and it was right that Punjab women should exercise some caution. The great danger is that people could start talking about the relationship before it has even been negotiated with the woman's family. If this happens, there may be pressure from the extended family to do something to end the relationship and bring the woman back under their control. As Dr. Lyon reports that he has noticed an increasing acceptance of an individual choice of partner, especially over the past ten years. However, this does not mean that women are now free to do anything. They are still expected to act morally and not be vulgar. The individual choice of the spouse by the woman is now within this framework and the focus is now on the suitability of the man. It seems like this applies to both rural areas or northern Punjab (historically very conservative) and urban centers like Rawalpindi and Lahore:
"This depends on the family and the status of the man. If a Punjabi woman comes from a well educated, urban and not too religiously enthusiastic household, and she picks the sort of man that her own family would have picked for her (whether or not he is a relative), then the relationship can be negotiated successfully. It is potentially dangerous, however, and Punjabi woman are right to be slightly cautious. The big danger is that people start gossiping about the romance and it gets back to the family before it's been properly negotiated. If that happens, then there can be pressure from extended family to do something to stop the relationship and get the woman under control. I've noticed that there is a growing acceptance of individual choice in relationships - particularly over the past 10 years. This doesn't mean that women are now free to do anything. They are still expected to be moral and not vulgar (whatever that means), but a woman choosing her marriage partner is now within the realm of moral and non-vulgar behavior. The emphasis now seems to be on the appropriateness of the man. This seems to apply in rural areas or northern Punjab (historically very conservative) as well as urban centers like Rawalpindi and Lahore. ” (Lyon, July 26th 2014)
In the sources currently available to ACCORD, no further specific information on the above-mentioned question could be found in the context of the time-limited research. In the following you will find more general information that does not go into the ethnicity of those involved / affected.
The Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) responded to a questionnaire dated January 2013 with reference to various sources on honor killings / crimes in Pakistan.The term “honor crimes” includes, among other things, honor killings, assaults, acid attacks, house arrest, imprisonment, interference in the decision to marry, burns and the severing of the nose. Honor killings were reported to remain a "serious" and persistent problem in Pakistan. Rural areas are most affected, although honor killings have also been reported from cities and within the "elite":
"Honor killings are included in the wider term 'honor crimes' which includes, among others, assault, acid throwing (UN nd), confinement, imprisonment, interference with a choice of marriage, burning, and nose-cutting (AF Nov. 2011 , 17, 34). " (IRB, January 15, 2013)
"Sources indicate that honor killings remained a" serious "(US 24May 2012, 1) and persistent problem in Pakistan (AHRC 10Dec. 2012, Sec. A7). Sources indicate that rural areas are most affected (AFP 6Nov. 2012; Pakistan , 85), although it has been reported in urban areas and among the ‘elite’ (ibid.). " (IRB, January 15, 2013)
The Atlantic article cited earlier reports on the case of Kainat Soomro, a 17-year-old Pakistani girl from Mehar (in Sindh province, note ACCORD), who was the victim of gang rape. Although tribal elders then referred to her as “kari” (term for women accused of immoral behavior, ACCORD's note), her family withstood the pressure and refused to kill her. However, this refusal has led the family to fear for their lives. The house of the family, who fled to Karachi after the incident, has been the target of attacks several times. As the article mentions, women and men who have illicit relationships or women who are about to lose their virginity before marriage are at risk of death in Pakistan. According to a representative from the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, Kainat was lucky. Usually the woman or girl is killed while the man gets away:
"Kainat Soomro is a 17-year-old Pakistani girl who has become a local celebrity of sorts in her battle for justice in the Pakistani courts, a daring move for a woman of any age in this country, let alone a teenager. She is fighting to get justice for a gang rape that she insists happened four years ago in Mehar, a small town in Pakistan. [...] According to the Kainat family's account, the tribal elders declared her kari, (which literally means black female), for losing her virginity outside marriage. In Pakistan, women and men who have illicit relationships or women who lose their virginity before marriage are at risk of paying with their lives. ‘These are matters of honor and the leaders call a jirga and they declare that the woman or the couple should be killed,’ said Abdul Hai, a veteran field officer for the Human Rights Commission in Pakistan. These acts of violence are most commonly labeled as honor killings. ’[…] Kainat said that despite the pressures her family refused to kill her. ‘It is the tradition, but if the family doesn't permit it, then it won't happen. My father, my brother, my mom didn't allow it, ’she said. And that defiance has left the family fearing for their lives. The family's new home in Karachi has been attacked a number of times. But, according to Abdul Hai, Kainat is lucky: ‘The woman or the girl usually gets killed and the man gets away,’ he said. " (The Atlantic, September 28, 2011)
The US Department of State (USDOS) writes in its country report on the human rights situation of February 2014 (reporting year 2013) that there have been frequent reports of the severing of the nose or ears of women, particularly in connection with "honor crimes" have. The authorities often did nothing to counter this practice. Local council assemblies (jirgas) have imposed inhuman punishments, e.g. honor killings for people accused of violating tribal traditions. According to the Lahore Times newspaper, a man and his parents attacked his 20-year-old wife with acid on May 7, 2013. The man and his parents believed that the woman was a "kari" or dishonored woman. The man was not arrested after the fact:
"The practice of cutting off a woman’s nose or ears, especially in connection with‘ honor ’crimes was frequently reported, but authorities often did not take action to combat the practice (also see section 6, Women). Parallel local council meetings (jirgas) announced inhuman punishments, such as honor killings for those accused of violating tribal customs or offering a woman or girl in marriage to the opposing clan to settle a dispute. The newspaper The Lahore Times reported that on May 7, a husband and his parents threw acid on his 20-year-old wife because they believed she was a ‘kari’ or dishonored woman. They allegedly locked the woman in the house for 15 days before finally allowing her to get medical treatment for her festering wounds. According to the article, police did not arrest the husband following the attack. " (USDOS, February 27, 2014, Section 1c)
As the USDOS further points out, an Honor Killing Act of 2004 and the Prevention of Practices Against Women Act of 2011 would criminalize acts directed against women in the name of traditional practices. Despite these laws, hundreds of women were reportedly victims of honor killings. Many cases have not been reported and have gone unpunished. The Pakistan-based women's rights organization Aurat Foundation reported 2,773 honor killings between 2008 and 2012 and estimated that less than two percent of honor killings were reported. The practice "karo-kari" or "siyah kari" - a deliberate honor killing that is committed when a family, a community, a tribal court or a jirga finds that adultery or another "crime against honor" has taken place - continued to occur across Pakistan. The term "karo-kari" stands for "black man" (karo) and "black woman" (kari), metaphorical terms for a person who has dishonored their family or who is an adulterer (in ) act. Once a woman has been classified as kari, male members of her family will assume that it is justified to kill the woman and any co-accused karo in order to restore family honor. In many cases, the karo is not killed, but can flee:
"A 2004 law on honor killings and the Prevention of Antiwomen Practices Act 2011 criminalizes acts committed against women in the name of traditional practices. Despite these laws, hundreds of women reportedly were victims of honor killings. Many cases went unreported and unpunished. The Aurat Foundation reported 2,773 honor killings between 2008 and 2012 and estimated less than 2 percent of honor killings were reported. The practice of karo-kari or siyah kari - a premeditated honor killing that occurs if a family, community, tribal court, or jirga determines that adultery or some other ‘crime of honor’ occurred - continued across the country. Karo-kari derives from ‘black male’ (karo) and ‘black female’ (kari), metaphoric terms for someone who has dishonored the family or is an adult or adult. Once a woman is labeled as a kari, male family members assume there is justification to kill her and any coaccused karo to restore family honor. In many cases the karo is not killed but is able to flee. " (USDOS, February 27, 2014, Section 6)
The USDOS also mentions that, legally speaking, women could marry without the consent of their family, but women who did so were often ostracized or faced with the risk of falling victim to an honor crime:
"Women are legally free to marry without family consent, but women who did so frequently were ostracized or faced becoming the victims of honor crimes." (USDOS, February 27, 2014, Section 6)
The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) writes in its annual report from March 2013 (reporting year 2012) that in 2012 at least 913 girls and women were killed in the name of honor. Of the 913 deaths in honor killings, at least 604 were killed after they were accused, often without evidence, of having an illicit relationship with a man. 191 were killed because they married the man of their choice and against the will of their family. The perpetrators were usually close relatives.
The report also states that women of all ages have been killed, tortured and publicly humiliated on suspicion of having an illicit relationship. In these cases, justice was difficult to achieve because the victim's family was almost always involved in the killing and was responsible for obstacles to the trial:
"According to media monitoring by HRCP, as many as 913 girls and women were killed in the name of honor in 2012. These included at least 99 minor girls. The number of victims of these attacks was believed to be higher than the figures suggested because of gaps in reporting. Out of the 913 victims of honor killings, at least 604 were killed after being accused of having illicit relations with men, often without any proof; 191 were killed because they had married according to their own choice and against their families ’wishes. [...] The perpetrators of these crimes were usually close relatives. [...]
[...] women of all ages were killed, tortured or publicly humiliated over mere suspicion of illicit relations, at times because they were seen talking to someone outside their family. Justice in these cases often remained elusive because the family of the victim was almost always complicit in the killing, and creating hindrances in the legal procedure. " (HRCP, March 2013, pp.171-172)
In its March 2014 annual report (2013 reporting year) the same source cites that 869 women were killed in the name of honor during the reporting period. 359 were killed in cases by Karo Kari:
"In 2013, 869 women were killed in the name of honor in Pakistan. As many as 359 were killed in cases of Karo Kari. " (HRCP, March 2014, p.180)
The German international broadcaster Deutsche Welle (DW) reported in an article from March 2012 that the centuries-old practice of honor killings in Pakistan provides for the killing of men and women if they enter into an “unauthorized” relationship. Traditionally, in Pakistan, such killings would not be considered murders. Rather, they would be accepted and recognized as a way of protecting family honor. Members of a particular clan or family would make a conscious decision to kill an alleged adulterer or guilty person and the perpetrators would be supported by their families.
While men could often escape death by running away or by persuading the woman's relatives to accept money, land, or a woman from their own clan as reparation, suspected women rarely had such options:
"According to a centuries-old custom in Pakistan, men and women are killed with a sense of right pride for allegedly establishing 'illicit' relationships.
Honor killings in Pakistan are known as ‘Karo Kari’ in Sindh province, ‘Kala Kali’ in the Punjab, ‘Tor Tora’ in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and ‘Siyahkari’ in Balochistan. The terms are used for persons accused of indulging in adult or "immoral" behavior. Traditionally, honor killings in Pakistan are not considered murder. They are accepted and recognized as a way of protecting family honor. Members of a certain clan or a family consciously decide to kill an allegedly adulterous or guilty individual and the perpetrators are backed by their families. [...]
While men often escape death by running away or persuading the woman’s relatives to accept cash, land, or a woman from their own clan in marriage, women suspects rarely have such alternatives. " (DW, March 20, 2012)
In an article from June 2014, the Reuters news agency reported on the case of an 18-year-old woman who survived an attempted murder by relatives. The woman upset her family by marrying the man of her choice in the city of Gujranwala, Punjab Province. Now the woman feared for her life and that of her husband, despite the protection of the police. According to the police, the perpetrators are the father, uncle, brother and aunt of the woman.
As the article points out, conservative Pakistani families would assume that it is dishonorable for a woman to fall in love and choose her own husband. These families are ready to kill their female relatives to protect their honor. In May 2014, a Pakistani woman was allegedly attacked and killed by family members for marrying the man of her choice:
“A Pakistani woman who survived an attack by relatives who tried to kill her for marrying for love told Reuters on Friday that she feared for her life and appealed for protection. Saba Maqsood, 18, survived being shot and thrown in a canal by her family on Thursday, weeks after the honor killing ’of another woman in Pakistan drew worldwide condemnation. Maqsood angered her family by marrying the man of her choice a few days ago in the Punjabi city of Gujranwala - an act of defiance in a conservative part of Pakistan where women are expected to agree to arranged marriages. ‘Even though police provided me with security, I fear that my family will try to kill me and my husband,’ Maqsood, still weak after being shot twice in the cheek and right hand, told Reuters by telephone from her hospital bed. 'I appeal to the chief minister and authorities to take serious notice of this attack on me and take necessary action for our security.' Police said Maqsood was attacked and shot by her father, uncle, brother and aunt, and thrown into the waterway in the city of Hafizabad in Punjab province on Thursday. [...]
Conservative Pakistani families believe it is dishonorable for a woman to fall in love and choose her own husband and are prepared to kill their female relatives to protect their honor. Last month, a Pakistani woman called Farzana Iqbal was attacked and killed by suspected family members because she had married the man she loved. " (Reuters, June 6, 2014)
The women News Network (WNN), a news organization focusing on women's rights issues, reported on the murder mentioned in the above quote in an article in May 2014. According to the article, the 25-year-old woman was killed by one of her brothers in Lahore, Punjab Province when she was about to enter a courthouse with her husband to testify against false claims made by her family against her husband. The woman had refused a marriage arranged by her family and instead married the man of her choice. In the incident, shots were initially fired in the direction of the couple, then the woman's brother killed them with bricks. Other family members would have watched the attack without intervening:
"A 25-year-old Pakistani woman and mother-to-be, Farzana Parveen, was killed in a public honor killing attack as over 40 people looked on as they stood watching the violence during daylight hours outside the high court building in Lahore, Pakistan on Tuesday. The attack took place as Farzana attempted to enter the court building with her husband to testify against erroneous claims made against her husband by her family. Married to what her family considered to be ‘the wrong man’, Farzana faced mortal danger as she rejected an arranged marriage and married the man she said she loved. In a region where arranged marriages are still common, ‘so-called’ honor violence is also all too common, say women advocates in the region. She was three months pregnant when she died at the hands of one of her brothers, after gunfire was shot in the direction of the couple and Farzana fell to the ground as she began running. After falling on the ground one of her brothers caught up with Farzana and then pelted her with nearby bricks from a construction site, as other family members looked on in broad daylight at the attack without moving to stop the violence. " (WNN, May 28, 2014)
The Neue Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ) also reports on the case in the following article:
NZZ - Neue Zürcher Zeitung: Young woman killed by family, May 29, 2014
In the HRCP annual report of March 2014, already quoted, several cases of “honor crimes” in the Punjab province are mentioned. Among other things, a man shot his two nieces in Chiniot on January 11, 2013, because he suspected them of having "inappropriate relationships" with two young men. According to the man, he killed the two to protect the family's honor.Also in January 2013, a couple who married without their families' consent were reportedly killed in Sheikhupura by the girl's father and brother:
"In Chiniot, Jaffar Ali Shah suspected his teenaged nieces of 'inappropriate relations' with two young men. On January 11, he shot both the girls dead and courted arrest confessing his crime. He said he had done it for the honor of his family. [...]
A couple which had married without their families ’blessings was killed in Khanqah Dogran in Sheikhupura in January, reportedly by the girl’s father and brother." (HRCP, March 2014, p.181)
Please also take into account the information contained in sub-question one.
Swell:(Accessed to all sources on August 12, 2014)
ACHR - Asian Center for Human Rights: Pakistan: The Land of Religious Apartheid and Jackboot Justice; A Report to the UN Committee Against Racial Discrimination, August 2007
AP - Associated Press: Pakistani Couple Killed Over Love Marriage, June 29, 2014 (available on nytimes.com)
CIA - Central Intelligence Agency: The World Factbook: Pakistan, last update June 20, 2014
DW - Deutsche Welle: Women in Pakistan face the brunt of honor killings, March 20, 2012
· Fair, C. Christine: Islamist Militancy in Pakistan: A View from the Provinces; Companion to Pakistani Public Opinion on the Swat Conflict, Afghanistan and the U.S., July 10, 2009
HRCP - Human Rights Commission of Pakistan: State of Human Rights in 2012, March 2013
HRCP - Human Rights Commission of Pakistan: State of Human Rights in 2013, March 2014
· IRB - Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada: Pakistan: Honor killings targeting men and women [PAK104257.E], January 15, 2013 (available on ecoi.net)
Levinson, David: Ethnic groups worldwide: a ready reference handbook, 1998
· Lyon, Stephen M .: E-Mail inquiry, July 26, 2014
NZZ - Neue Zürcher Zeitung: Young woman killed by family, May 29, 2014
PTI - Press Trust of India: Pak couple murdered in honor killing case, August 3, 2014 (available on zeenews.india.com)
Reuters: Pakistan survivor of honor killing attempt fears for her life, June 6, 2014
The Atlantic: Refusing to Kill Daughter, Pakistani Family Defies Tradition, Draws Anger, September 28, 2011
USDOS - US Department of State: Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2013 - Pakistan, February 27, 2014 (available on ecoi.net)
Wikan, Unni: In honor of Fadime: murder and shame (translated by Anna Paterson), 2008 (excerpts available on Google Books)
http://books.google.at/books?id=LvkZeQPY8aEC&pg=PA102&lpg=PA102&dq=%22male+victims%22+honour+killings+pakistan&source=bl&ots=j8Sip4h4OT&sig=FxcWoVF2SE5fnmTRmZRcHz_3Kl4&hl=de&sa=X&ei=J6XeU6zpNcTBO_emgbgE&ved=0CFcQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q =% 22male% 20victims% 22% 20honour% 20killings% 20pakistan & f = false
WNN - Women News Network: ‘So-called’ honor based violence ends in death outside courtroom for Pakistan woman, May 28, 2014
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