Most of the Australian settlers were Irish

History of Sydney: Information about the development of the cosmopolitan city

The History of Sydney begins in 1788 when the first British colony in Australia was founded at Sydney Cove under the direction of Arthur Phillip. After initial difficulties with the supply, the isolation and the still unknown natural conditions, Sydney was able to develop the reputation of a cosmopolitan city very quickly. Meanwhile, people from all over the world are interested in the multicultural metropolis and millions of times arrive at Sydney International Airport every year, for example to get to the bottom of the history of Sydney in one of the numerous museums or to visit the many sights.

 

Early history

The very early history of the city begins with the Aborigines moving from Asia to northern Australiaabout 45,000 to 60,000 years ago. Over time, the indigenous people expanded their habitats more and more towards the south. At least 30,000 years ago, the indigenous population of the red continent is said to have lived in what is now Sydney. At the time of the arrival of the British, the port was inhabited by several hundred tribes or between 4,000 and 8,000 Aborigines. Incidentally, the Europeans made their first contacts with the tribes of the Eora and the Cadigal. James Cook sighted on April 19, 1770 with the HMS Endeavor the east coast of Australia and moored 10 days later at the Botany Bay he named. After researching the newly discovered mainland, Cook reported England that this was the ideal place to establish a British colony. The city's history broke First Fleet on May 13, 1787 under Arthur Phillips command from Portsmouth in England to the other end of the world to build a new settlement and a penal colony here. The 11 British ships consisted of 3 supply ships and 6 convict transporters, on which around 600 free persons and nearly 800 prisoners (25% women & 75% men) were housed. After an eight-month journey, almost all passengers (almost 50 people were killed) reached Botany Bay between January 18 and 20, 1788. However, since it turned out that the Sydney Cove in the protected Port Jackson had better conditions for settlement than the Botany Bay, the position was changed and founded on January 26, 1788 (Australia Day) the first British settlement in Australia. The final name was set on February 7, 1788 and was chosen in honor of the then British Interior Minister Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney, who made a decisive contribution to the development of the new colony.

Arthur Phillip's goals were to discipline the prisoners and establish a new settlement as well as to create peaceful relations between the indigenous people and the settlers. It is said that he set up very wise and very modern rules of conduct in dealings between Europeans and Aborigines, which is why, apart from a few incidents, a peaceful relationship between the two cultures was preserved. After in April of the year 1789 a French expedition ship visited Sydney, but broke a devastating one Smallpox epidemic whereupon most of the Eora died in a short time. Just a few years after the arrival of the first Europeans, only 10% of the original population was still alive. As early as 1892 there were more Europeans than indigenous people in the area of ‚Äč‚Äčtoday's metropolis.

The early days of the new colony were both arduous and hard. Fields and houses had to be built with very little building material and a lack of skilled workers. In addition, the many prisoners who were weakened or sick from the trip could not work at first, and supplies from England only came at longer intervals. 1790 reached the Second Fleet with only 75% of the original passengers and 1791 the Third Fleet with health impaired convicts the settlement. In the first four years of Sydney's history, more than 3,500 male and nearly 800 female prisoners arrived in Sydney, but few of them had the skills to establish a colony. Nevertheless, Arthur Phillip was able to set up the most important pillars in almost 15 years, which is why he returned to England on December 11, 1792 with a clear conscience.

Since there was not enough cash available, rum was increasingly used as an illegal cash substitute. Many officers of the New South Wales Corps (division of the Royal Marines) took advantage of their relationships and were able to enrich themselves thanks to the rum. This corrupt enterprise was supported by the politician John Macarthur, which is why he was imprisoned by Governor William Bligh. This came about in 1808 Rum rebellion, an armed resistance between the corps and the government. The New South Wales Corps captured Bligh in his home, whereupon he was replaced on January 1, 1810 by the new governor of the colony, Lachlan Macquarie. Macquarie played an important role from then on, as he set up important institutions such as banks, churches, docks, markets, streets, parks and the police. He also continued to have good relationships with the Aborigines.

From 1830 to 1840 more and more suburbs formed as many new settlers from Ireland and Great Britain wanted to start a new life on the other side of the world. Former inmate William Wentworth founded the Australian Patriotic Association in 1835 as the city's first party. With the city administration, which has existed since 1842, Sydney is officially declared from the status of a British penal colony to the first city in Australia. A year later, the first parliamentary elections took place, in which all wealthy men were allowed to participate. With the establishment of the University of Sydney in 1850, another important cornerstone was laid in the history of Sydney. beginning of the year 1851 it came after the gold discovery in Bathurst 150km west of Sydney Gold rush. From the resulting population boom, the population grew from 39,000 to 200,000 people within 20 years. In addition, the city benefited from the expansion of the infrastructure resulting from the high demand for trains and the increased volume of port traffic. However, only a few months after the gold was found, larger quantities of the precious metal were found near Melbourne, whereupon there was a rapid population increase here as well. With this event began the competition between the metropolises of Sydney and Melbourne, which continued until the creation of today's capital Canberra. Another significant event occurred in 1857, when all men were given the right to vote for the first time. With the Stabilization of government in the 1860s the city finally had the opportunity to deal with the cultural needs and the leisure sector. In 1863, for example, the first major sports clubs were formed, a larger art scene emerged in the 1870s and the Sydney International Exhibition took place in 1879, at which the great colonial city presented itself to the world.

 

Recent history

From 1788 to December 31, 1900, Sydney was the capital of the British colony of New South Wales. As on 01.01.1901 however that Commonwealth of Australia came into force, the metropolis became the federal capital of the new state of New South Wales. With the industrialization Even at the beginning of modern history, the city had over a million inhabitants and is therefore larger than Melbourne. In the course of the increasingly popular bathing in full-body suits, the surf culture, which is still very popular today, has been developing since 1915. However, the residents suffered a deep blow with the loss of around 60,000 Australian soldiers who were on the side of Great Britain in the First World War (1914-1918) moved and never returned. In memory of the victims, the Sydney Cenotaph was erected on Marin Place in 1927 and the ANZAC War Memorial in Hyde Park in 1934 as the city's largest war memorial. In the 1930s, Sydney gets the big one Great Depression and after 8 years of construction the Harbor Bridge was completed in 1932, after which more and more suburbs in the north emerged. On September 3, 1939, it was officially announced that Australia would participate in the second World War against Germany, Italy, Japan and other countries. When the Japanese attacked Sydney and Newcastle on June 1, 1942, 21 people were killed and in May 1942 the Battle of the Coral Sea against Japan took place. Due to the lack of men, however, the role of women in society became significantly more important during the war.

In the post war period the city became more and more multicultural as many immigrants from Europe wanted to start a new life on the other side of the world. Innovative industries emerged and finance became more important with the establishment of large banks. The education sector also continued to develop, with 5 new universities being founded, for example. Since the 1970s, most migrants and travelers from all over the world have been arriving at the city's international terminal. In 1967 the Australia Square Tower (170m), the even higher Sydney Tower (309m) in 1981, the Sydney Opera House in 1973 and the 2.3km long Sydney Harbor Tunnel in 1992. Furthermore, between 1993 and 1994 the worst bush fires ever occurred. A highlight of Sydney's recent history, however, has been the city's being the venue for the 2000 Summer Olympics selected. This event drew the attention and interest of the whole world to the metropolis and also to Australia. The Olympic Park, which includes some of the largest sports facilities in the city, was built specifically for this event. In addition, after the Olympic Games, the 2003 Rugby Union World Cup, the APEC Australia meeting in 2007 and the World Youth Day 2008 took place in the metropolis. Today the world metropolis is undisputedly the largest and internationally most popular city in Australia. In 2017, it also cracked the population of over 5 million for the first time.

 

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