What causes food addiction

We struggle with food addiction. Food addiction

Modern people not only use food as a source of energy, but also their own problems. Many of us use food, substituting for communication, gender, and bright emotions. In this article we are going to talk to you about a serious problem that is most likely partially affected with you.

You can't live a day without liters of coffee, or you can't deny yourself in a cake even after a satisfying lunch, and maybe every day you use chips? Most likely, you have a diet addiction. What to do to overcome them, what "symptoms" and signs of disease should make you aware - read about it in the article.

The average person unscrewed by exercise and active views exceeds the daily calorie content of the diet is one and a half or two times. What causes such behavior? How to stop eating stressful foods, how to get rid of food addiction? Why not turn down all of your favorite delicacies right away? This article provides answers to these and other questions.

The essence of the disease and the cause of the problem

Psychology abandons such a term as "addiction," which means addiction. Experts argue that the dietary addiction is not from alcoholism or drug addiction. If the drug addict needs a "dose" and the alcoholic is a full glass, then the "floating" needs food. The process of absorption of food is almost uncontrollable, and in the absence of the desired products in the refrigerator or cabinet, the dependent mood, irritability and excessive emotions worsen.

A person suffering from food addiction begins to eat much more than the body needs to function normally. Such people are prone to overeating, and the process of nourishing goodies is only hung up when the ailment turns physically bad.

There are two types of obsessive needs (addicts) - chemical and emotional. And if the first relates to alcohol and drugs, the second marks the behavior when, with the help of some action (and in this case, food) a person tries to deficit certain emotions.

Just like other addictions, "Firefare" can develop from childhood.

Which products can be ascribed dangerous?

There are certain delicacies that are really capable of creating an addiction that is quite difficult to get rid of. These include:

  • First of all, it's sweets. Everyone knows such a substance as serotonin, which is able to cause pleasure and other pleasant emotions. It is the use of "sugar" desserts that helps develop this connection and only creates a feeling of satisfaction after eating. If you are not getting joyful feelings in your life then you will soon have to be addicted to cake and ice cream.
  • Potentially dangerous can be products with cocoa beans. This includes cocoa, chocolate and of course coffee.
  • You should also be careful with fast food. All of these dishes contain significant amounts of flavor enhancers that can cause edible addiction.

It is known that it is often unable to break the relationship between "candy" and people with excessive bodies. To start, it is recommended that rolls and other delicacies replace dried fruit at least partially. It is necessary to remove them from the diet gradually, and not in a moment. After all, this is a great stress on the body.

In order not to get "on the hook" and not seek information to overcome addiction to food, we recommend that you listen to the opinions of nutritionists and give up the harmful additives:

  • sodium glutamate;
  • corn syrup with fructose;
  • artificial sugar substitutes.

The latter reduce the calorie content of your popular carbonated drinks, that's just the body's benefits they don't bring. In addition, these synthetic substances significantly increase appetite.

All of these additives are used in making products that are not for the best of motives. Psychologists believe that they cause a sense of addiction, and after using them, a person goes back to the store for a new dose.

Consequence dependency

Before talking about how to overcome food addiction and get rid of the obsessive desire to consider calories or have trouble eating, it is necessary to clearly understand what "firefare" does. Think the worst is 5-7 kg. Overweight? Unfortunately, "side" effects can be a lot more scary. These include:

  • obesity;
  • diseases of the joints and musculoskeletal system;
  • severe problems associated with the work of internal organs;
  • development of diabetes;
  • increased levels of "bad" cholesterol in the blood;
  • temporary airways during sleep.

It should also be noted that the "foods" often suffer from a reduced self-esteem, they respect themselves. What is the respect, what is the respect, when the dietary addiction is again and again and leads back under control ?! Women note that they stop liking each other because of the rapid weight gain.

Signs of food addiction

There are a large number of signs of food addiction. You may suffer from this disease if:

  • In the last few years the volume of your portions has increased significantly;
  • they don't stop eating until you get sick;
  • they cannot pass a supermarket or small shop without going there and buying something;
  • they begin to have bought delicacies when they leave the store, and even if not hungry at all;
  • they can eat to calm themselves, remove feelings of loneliness or fear;
  • if you feel satiated sense, you will keep eating food until you have eaten the last crumb.

In all of these cases, a person suffering from food addiction understands that he is eating too much and what is changing his habit, but nothing can be done with it. If you have at least some of the "symptoms", you most likely have been feeding. How is going to get rid of this problem?

If you have long tried struggling and dreaming of getting rid of this "questioning", but you cannot control yourself and understand how to overcome food addiction, then you may need to contact a psychologist. It won't hurt to look at a nutritionist who will help create healthy lifestyle habits and choose a balanced menu for each day.

Food Behavior: The Difference Between Sick And Healthy

Please note that if you get used to the taste of a particular product and have continuously consumed it, it does not mean that you have developed a diet addiction. In fact, it's just your addiction. There are large numbers of people who love certain dishes or products. For example, morning coffee, pizza, cheese with black bread or seafood. All of this relates to perfectly normal food behavior.

But there is also an opposite side of the coin, if you can talk about the presence of an addiction with which it is necessary to get rid of. For example, if you do not eat because of hunger, but to receive stress or problem, it is lack of love or money, or if you are tormented by feelings of guilt. By doing this, you are trying to get positive emotions and "fee". Over a short period of time, a person with addictive grades, the portions increase, it will increasingly result in such "feeding therapy".

One of the main differences in dependence on addiction is that in the first case a person enjoys the taste of favorite products. And in the second, they ingest food mechanically and unconsciously, enjoying the process themselves.

How to overcome food addiction

  1. First of all, you need to realize that you have food addiction. How do you get rid of it, the second question is. First of all, you need to understand what caused its development. Some people are used to such a way of running away from reality. For example, the reasons for "food foils" can be hidden not only in the lack of positive emotions, but also in health problems. Surprised? In fact, people who have something hurts to distract the cake or potatoes.
  2. For self-control we recommend starting move the food diary. Do you throw everything you put in your mouth during the day. When the forbidden goodies make up most of the diet, remembering the reasons for your food behavior. Analyzing forces you to be treated with food addiction at home. You can overcome the disease independently, in case you strive for yourself and refuse yourself in the next part of the delicacy. Instead, it is better to drink a glass of acidified water.
  3. By the way, over water. Experts advise you to fool your body. Instead of such desirable candy "treat it with two glasses of water. Do it before every meal and at the moments when you feel like there are two options. This will help get rid of the" advice.
  4. If you want to understand how to beat a strong food addiction, analyze your day. Most likely, you will eat while watching TV or communicating on the social network. Psychologists recommend eating in silence without being distracted by other classes.
  5. From the fridge from the heart of won. Partially remove from the kitchen all products on which you are dependent. Don't look into the supermarket sections where they are during the week.
  6. Experts believe that it is impossible to completely reject "forbidden fetal". Remove your chocolate or donuts - and bother so as not to avoid. You will also eat a lot more. After all, the body received the team that it is limited. Many people struggle radically with problems. You need to lose weight - refuse food or sit on rigid diets. With such a food disorder is not an option. In your case, cups are extremely dangerous.
  7. The emotional dependence of the forbidden meal needs to be gradually replaced to receive pleasant emotionsfrom communication with surrounding interesting work or hobby.
  8. It is possible to treat exertion addiction. Exercise should be an integral part of your life because it removes the source of the eating problem. The fact is that with regular exercise a hormone of pleasure is produced, so any negative emotions will remain in the hall and you will feel the flood of strength and power. When you struggle with "advice" like this, you give up thoughts that punish yourself for being curious.
  9. It is very important that the person suffering from food addiction has found like-minded, together with whom to get rid of the sick mania, it will be easier. Perhaps you do not prevent anonymous "Foodgestics" from visiting the club. Or you can share your problem connections and ask them for support. Sometimes, with a well-coordinated tandem, the help of a specialist may not be required.
  10. If your psychological addiction to food has arisen due to severe stress or nervous tension, then start practicing aromatherapy, attending massage sessions, or other SPA treatments. These are effective methods of dealing with negative emotions and relaxing not only your body but also your brain. When getting rid of a severe food addiction, acupuncture sessions, yoga, and meditation sessions may include.

If your munching methods are ineffective then you better turn to the specialistthat will identify the food addiction. Its treatment implies the use of neurological programming, suggestion, or hypnosis. However, keep in mind that unless you are aware of your problem and you do not want to get rid of it, these methods will not work.

Now that you know what food addiction is and what symptoms can tell you need special help. After all, this is primarily a psychological problem. We also hope that our advice on how to deal with food addiction will help you get rid of the problem, beat it, beat it, and eventually live a full life.

Do not forget that food is really necessary for the normal existence of your "biological skateman", but it is not necessary to become a slave to the refrigerator and your belly. We believe that instead of another pack of chips or a dense lunch in KFC, better time to spend with your loved ones doing a new hobby or arranging a relaxing evening for yourself in the toilet.

Text: Olga Kim

Many claim it is necessary to enjoy meals in order to be able, may be able, may be able, may be able, may be able, may be able to Can be able, can be, can be, and the gloves are one of the most pleasurable sins. But for some, eating becomes like a harmful addiction habit. What is a terrible food addiction and can I deal with it?

Essence of Food Addiction

Dietary addiction is practically no different from the same alcoholism or drug addiction as it has some psychological roots with them. As an alcoholic need to drink constantly, and the drug addict is to take a dose, and "edoman" can not deny himself in food. This process is practically uncontrollable, and the enforced ban can lead to emotional splatters.

Food addiction (and in particular concerns excessive blast of sweetness) is expressed in food consumption that exceeds the required organism. Overbinding leads not only to excess weight but also to such diseases as diabetes, hypertension, problems with the gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovascular system.

Just do not think that if you eat the same product all the time - then it is a diet addiction. This is known as simple food addiction. But if you don't care that you eat and your servings increase with enviable regularity, then on the face only the most nutritional addiction is only.

Food addiction usually occurs due to the inability to cope with stressful situations. Usually when you are nervous, concerned about feeling wrong in your plate, the desire to eat something becomes quite logical, especially with women. But if in any way, even the slightest nervous situation, you are just thinking about food, then the problem really takes place in order to be, and with it it is necessary to strengthen.

How can you deal with food addiction?

If you discover that you have signs of food addiction and you really want to get rid of it, follow the recommendations outlined.

  • Get yourself a special notebook to record everything you eat and drink for a day.

  • Keep every morning on an empty stomach on the scales every morning and every night before bed. Result set on the same notepad.

  • Compare your weight in the morning and in the evening to understand how much you are eating each day.

  • Constantly study the results you have recorded to determine which products you are most overweight. It will be an excellent incentive to "slow down" slow down.

  • When you take in a huge dish of food and order numerous dishes in the restaurant, think about why you did it? Most likely, a sense of greed worked because everything looks. However, you should gradually cut off your measure. And it will happen when you learn how much food is needed for your body.

  • Get enough breakfast and dine, but light dinner for dinner. It is necessary in order not to let your belly work around the clock.

  • Focus on the food, chew it slowly and enjoy not the editing process but the taste data dishes.

Food addiction, however, can be equated with alcoholism and drug addiction, but it is much easier to get rid of it. Here you have to control yourself and your wishes. Aware that there is still so much interesting in the world besides delicious food.

DIPLOMA THESIS

Discipline: biology with the basics of ecology

Subject: food addiction


introduction

Chapter 1. Problem Statement

relevance

How do we eat

Why do we eat

Chapter 2. Food addiction

Chapter 3. Drug Products

Chocolate addiction?

sugar

flesh

Bulimia (nervous bulimia)

Compulsive overeating

Chapter 6. Study.

Food questionnaire.

Conclusions

Reference list

Applications

Questionnaire on the tendency towards food addiction

introduction


The need for food is primary, natural, biological. According to the pyramid of butter, natural needs occupy the minimum level of needs, that is, until now they are not satisfied, the next level needs cannot be satisfied. However, the daily human diet does not only contain the volume of calories necessary for survival. Also the time of meals, the amount eaten, the preference of some products over others depends on the person. This means that food behavior not only defines natural needs, but also the knowledge gained in the past. Such biological needs - needs, consideration of experience and knowledge - are related to physiological needs. Physiological needs include habits. Living habits are determined by the traditions of family, society, religion, advice from doctors, fashion, any personal causes. Lifestyle habits also depend on the person's spiritual and emotional state. Food plays an important role in the formation of the emotional state of people at an early age. The child calms down with breastfeeding and remembers that eating gives a sense of comfort and security. Fear of hungry death creates the basis of feeling more unprotected, although death from hunger is quite rare in our time. That is, in infancy we associated a feeling of security with satiety.

In childhood we included boron and chops in our compulsory program. Do not introduce yourself interested in us. But candy and candy bars served as the embodiment of a vacation. Hence, the understanding that candy is joy is rare joy. And if you can get a cute one, you have to use it.

If the baby sinks in the tongue sweet, sour, salty or bitter water, it will show a positive reaction only for sweet. The reason for this addiction lies in the fact that evolution has given us an instinctive understanding that sweet foods are a reliable source of energy, while bitter tastes are linked to dangerous food health. Other scientists suggest that the love of sweetness is placed in the womb and linked to the taste of spindle water. Perhaps both points of view are correct because they do not contradict each other.

In addition, the place was found to be addictive. If a great dose of sweets is offered in the form of sweetened tea or juice from the start, then in the future it will be inclined to abandon drinks with lower sugar content.

Scientists find that it is possible to get used not only to sugar, but also to foods that are salty, oily, and containing glutamate. Scientists at the University of Kiel killed laboratory rat amplifiers with glutamate in various volumes. Result: the higher the dose of glutamate, the time the animals grow. In particular, a brutal appetite appeared in men: they ate twice more and drank three times more than usual. On the other hand, when the dosage of the named substance decreased, the food refused to eat.

In the presenton University in New Jersey study, mice that were fed high levels of sugar and fat responded to a significant decrease in diet as drug addicts: they became nervous, restless, and scattered. It was pretty obvious that sweet and fatty dishes can cause the same addiction as morphine or nicotine. Psychologists explain such an influence that fatty fat and sugar are not stimulated by the production of endorphins - "hormones of happiness", and in their absence the body begins to "break".

This conclusion is confirmed by neurologists from Wisconsin Medical College who found in the brains of rats that were given foods high in fats, salt, and sugar, biochemical changes, similar to when using morphine or other drugs. Rats prefer fatty foods and just can't stop until they eat it all. It is likely that such a state of "obsession" appears in a person, as in the real rats and homo sapiens much in common. Hence, it turns out that in a meal high in sugar and fats, and in an insurmountable craving, it reigns all the time, and the real culprit lies in the existing excess epidemic.

There is also a social aspect to food, as phenomena. The style of food is related to communication with the company. The habits of the company are the habits of every member of that company. If the company goes to McDonalds a lot, each of those companies gets used to such a lifestyle. He badly interferes with the food behavior of the idea of ​​beauty in society, fashion.

Accepting food to satisfy hunger is the simple form of edible behavior. However, a person has a food need also a tool:

release of mental and emotional stress;

communication, when eating is associated with staying in the collective;

sensual pleasure;

certain rituals or habits (religious, national, family traditions);

compensation for unmet needs (the need for communication, parental care, etc.);

awards or promotion based on the taste properties of food;

satisfaction aesthetic need.

So what is food addiction?

Food addiction is a violation of food behavior.

Food addiction is a violation of a mental state in which a person uses food not to quench the feeling of hunger, but to raise the mood and get pleasant feelings. For people with food addiction, eating helps cope with excitement, anxiety, it helps remove stress.

About food addiction, they say, even if a person gives too much meal and his weight. Food addictions are characterized by a violation of the rate of performance, a person eats too much or too little.

Constant concern for food, his weight, dissatisfaction with her body, completely subordinate her life, which reflects on the emotional state and the general quality of life, which leads to tension and anxiety.

Addiction to food is a psychological addiction on the one hand, and on the other hand - the thickening of hunger. As food becomes increasingly addictive, artificial stimulation of the feeling of hunger appears. The human overeating changes the wallet balance. The feeling of hunger appears immediately with the fall in the concentration of glucose in the blood after the next meal. Physiological mechanisms are outlined. Man eats too much and too often. In some growing stage he begins to feel ashamed, to be ashamed, and tries to hide the fact of the addiction. It begins to eat alone, in the intervals between each active activity. All of this leads to dangerous health effects: disruption of metabolism and loss of control, increasing weight, which leads to the fact that a person consumes the amount of food that poses a threat to his life.

Food addiction refers to those forms of behavior that outwardly contradict legal, moral, ethical and cultural standards, but at the same time violate the integrity of the personality, delay development, one-sided one-sided and seriously complicated interpersonal relationships. K. LEONGARD (1997) believes that "in the filling tone of a person's thoughts, he is constantly directed to the satisfaction of an insatiable appetite, but consists of his entire lifestyle." A vicious circle arises when it reveals what completeness limits a person's activity and consequently leads primitive physical needs to the fore.

food addiction behavior violation

Chapter 1. Problem Statement


relevance


Do you often feel a sudden desire to eat? Do you often see the chocolate chocolate, you can limit, not hold up a decent piece? Do you often help a delicious sandwich in your fantasies, do you want to eat it? You won't be taken out of the table until you eat everything on it, even if I was found in the process of absorbing food? Do you feel guilty when grabbing an "extra" piece? When you pass a fast food restaurant, you may have heard a pleasant smell, can't you look away?

Lately, obesity cases have become more common. The increase in the previous number of patients is 10% over 10 years. Experts calculate that if this trend is continued, by the middle of the twenty-first century, by the middle of the twenty-first century, almost the entire population of economically developed countries will suffer obesity. Obesity is a result of overeating.

Most often the result is the violation of food behavior. Food behavior should be understood to mean an attitude towards food and its reception. Taste settings, diet, individual power supply mode, food in different life situations. In other words, food behavior includes installations, behaviors, habits, and emotions related to food that are individual to each person.

The relevance of my work is that diet addiction is not seen as a problem that many doctors need to investigate. However, the problem becomes more and more pressing. Many of us don't even realize how dependent we are on food.

Food addiction applies not only to overeating, but also to bulimia and anorexia ...

How do we eat


There is a joy center in the human brain that is necessary for human survival. It forces us to continue the species and not to break its genetic line, it also forces us to eat food. If we do not enjoy eating, if we feel hungry, we are not paying attention to the body's most important needs. This pleasure center, as it was, forces a person to eat, communicate, move around, and have offspring. Every time the action brings more joy than expected, the brain releases a hormone and stimulates a sense of contentment - dopamine. Dopamine is associated with all joys: from the unexpected delicacies to the romantic flirtation. Everything that the brain perceives as pleasant, dopamine puts on all brain cells and shifts the memory to the source of pleasure. So the memory of delicious chocolate lives in our head, and we strive to relive this feeling over and over again.

It turns out that when the center of pleasure in the brain attracts us to feed us food (which is necessary for survival) then it is doing its job. In ancient times, the choice of food was not rich. What is today? So much so sweet and bold!


Why do we eat


Food is one of the body's most important physiological needs.

The power supply is necessary to replenish constant update and building cells and tissues to replenish the cost of energy and substances of the body, hormones, enzymes, other regulators of metabolic processes and vital activity.

The metabolism, function and structure of cells, tissues and organs depend on human nutrition.

Nutrition is a complex process of reception, digestion, absorption and assimilation in the body of food substances.

So again: what gives us food?

Building material, energy, influence on the psyche.

Two performance strategies

We define two nutritional strategies that conflict with one another: an appetite strategy and a hunger strategy. One of them leads us to record, and the other supports the necessary balance in the body. They have different goals. The appetite strategy is related to the goal of getting pleasure from foods that preserve positive emotions. This strategy is often resorted to to remove stress.

Strategy "appetite":

I see the product (in the imagination).

I present its taste, smell (or felt),

A desire (appetite) appears.

It is until the feeling of satiety appears.

Hunger is a signal about the need to replenish the reserves of a substance in the body, which fades after the introduction of the required part of food. Of course, it is important that the food has a pleasant and edible look, and the smell and taste were pleasant. However, the main goal is food that must be useful. Not just a summary useful, but useful at the time of use. The feeling of hunger is an indication that the body has to rule certain foods. And it is important to correctly determine what foods should be in the composition.

"Hunger" strategy:

The feeling of the mouth, larynx, stomach (hunger) (hunger).

The image of a particular product occurs in the head.

A desire to eat this product appears.

I eat just as much while still feeling hungry.

It is important to distinguish between true and false hunger.

Real hunger - for a person A relatively small amount of food contributes to the satisfaction of the body's body for food. False hunger is a constant desire to eat or enjoy a taste. False hunger can appear shortly after lunch, when the real feeling of hunger is impossible because the digestive process is not over yet. It can appear on certain emotions (boredom, fear, insult). Dietary addiction is characteristic that a person is not satisfied with physiological hunger, but psychological, - people try to get positive emotions with food.

In food addiction, the person is constantly overeating - much more than the body is required to do. Persistent overeating causes unpleasant consequences: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, edema, stomach problems and the cardiovascular system - a list of possible consequences of food addiction.

There are two causes of false hunger:

) Increased stomach acid.

The reduced acidity of the stomach is often experienced as physical hunger. It is often very painful and quite difficult for a person to stay and not eat something to calm the pain.

) Reduced blood sugar level.

The second cause of false hunger is a sudden increase and then a sharp decrease in blood sugar. The reason for this is carbohydrates in the diet, which cause insulin and glucose levels to rise too quickly. This link between carbohydrates and blood glucose / insulin levels is measured by a glycemic index of carbohydrates (GI).

High GI products will result in an overly strong insulin response. Low GI products release insulin and glucose into the blood so slowly it is felt as even physical energy and clarity in the head.

Chapter 2. Food addiction


How do I recognize dependent foods?


It is worth noting that food addiction is more common in women than men.

So what is characteristic of a person with food addiction?

The first is the fear of completeness. Partly it is caused by fashion. The grand piano boom began long ago in the 1960s. Previously, this thinness was achieved with clothing with the help of a corset. Now in the fashion diet. Many women are unhappy with their weight and figure and limit themselves to food. This is expressed in different ways in different social groups. In the United States, for example, this phenomenon is common among white women of the middle and upper classes. You can talk about edible behavior disorder when experiences with our own weight are stronger than a normal woman from the same social circle.The occurrence of food disorders may be due to a person's personal qualities, e.g. B. Perfectionism (pathological desire for excellence), narcissism, excessive awareness of the opinion of others.

The second is self-restraint in food. This is a consequence of the first - fear of completeness. This is most pronounced with anorexia. A person produces various food rules that are often unreasonable. It initially declines from all of these products that you can fill in your pursuit of. Bulimia and obsessive over-the-top dreams of self-limits alternate with attacks of gluttony.

The third - attacks of gluttony. These are the episodes of loss of control over food during which a person cannot overcome the desire to have a particular product or continuously. These attacks are short-lived, but they can stretch for the whole day, and then the person eats often, but gradually. In addition, preference is given to a food that is easy to chew, that is, cookies, crackers, chips, candy, ice cream, etc. As scientists believed, attacks are usually from attempts to restrict meals.

The fourth is the desire to unload. A person takes any action that leads to attempts to eliminate the results of an increment attack. There are many ways to discharge a lot: a sharp restriction on calorie feed, intense exercise, challenge, vomiting, receiving laxatives. Usually limited in calories and exercise not to unloading, but basically overweight to fight. Then we cannot always regard them as a means of relief.

So characteristic signs of food addiction:

Feeling anxious about ingesting food

Use countermeasures (hunger, vomiting, excessive physical exertion)

Reason for meals - not internal signals of the body (hunger) and external

Excessive control and uncompromising diet (hard diet)

Calcotic diet (periods of hunger and gluttony)

. "Singing Stress"

Afraid of the weight set

Constant thoughts about food

Distorted attitude towards his own body.


Causes of Food Addiction


The first reason we can invoke the joy that a person comes out of the food process from eating. Dependent consoles even with stress, out of resentment, out of a bad mood. No wonder, because there was a saying, "Please eat yourself".

The second reason can be distinguished by the so-called conflict of personalities, that is, the conflict of what to eat with pleasure and tasty food, and at the same time not to overeat. In the human being, as if two opposing personalities are fighting, one of whom wants to eat in his joy, the other wants to want to be slim. Such a split is often laid in childhood and only grows over time. From here and formed "swing": people first successfully sit on diets, and then a fine moment break up and incline even more weight.

The third reason is "parent programming". Our parents, grandparents, remember wartime, terrible hunger. At that time, refilling was considered a blessing by children. Times have changed and there are no habits.

Psychological trauma can be another reason. Perhaps something happened to a person that the psyche could not "digest". And now the protective reaction to food stocks is "just in case."

Fifth reason - self-sewing. Much more than once heard the phrase "Good man should be a lot." Depending on the meals you could "program" and repeat this sentence.

The sixth reason is the likelihood of cumiram and references. It often happens that when a person likes someone from people, he tries to like them.

Seventh reason - self development. The most common expression of self-regulation is bulimia and anorexia. A person feels a sense of guilt, something did not have time to do, offends someone ... and begins to destroy his body ...

The eighth reason is genetics. The results of research on the diet of parents of parents with increased weight and children of parents with normal weight suggest that inheritance is not only the characteristics of constitution and metabolism, but also the mode of food intake. Children full of parents usually prefer fatty foods, dislike vegetables, and are more likely to overeat.


Why is a person losing control while I am losing food?


Trap for Rzhor number 1: Multicolored Ecits Appetit

It has been proven: being rich in the color of the product, the higher the likelihood that it will be eaten or bought.

Scientists from the University of Illinois conducted an experiment: research participants were suggested to choose candy wrapped - either multicolored or sorted by color. As a result, 69% chose a box of multi-colored candies. "The testicles found each other wonderful and chose a box with multi-colored candies, which were associated with joy, joy, joy, satisfaction and pleasant taste," explains the head of research Barbara. In the next experiment, the participants offered two boxes of chocolate balls: in one there were balls of seven colors, in the other - ten. From the second, candy was eaten 43% more. "The more colors we see, the more we eat" - says.

Trap number 2: Handra

Handra and stress lead to an insurmountable desire to eat something fatty or sweet. From a physiological point of view, this is due to the development of the hormone cortisol. With exercise, as well as during stress, the emission of adrenal glands is significantly increased - to start the mechanism for treating possible damage. In addition, the hormone affects the fat metabolism of sugar, which strengthens our appetite.

The University of Helsinki scientist found that men had the emergence of stressful states that excite a feeling of hunger, primarily with work, in women, on the contrary, with a personal life. "His" attacks the wolf appetite as something wrong at work, but "she" - when they put on dark clouds over family or family relationships. Men are always deeper to experience professional successes or failures, and women are the problems of their personal lives.

Trap number 3: quick, quick!

Nowadays food culture has changed significantly. Now there have been grandmothers and mothers on the plate for a long time, people prefer more "quick" food: whether it's a frozen pizza or a sandwich.

There is a significant problem with fast eating: when we eat fast, we do not notice the feelings of satiety.

Professor of Food Problems Kathleen Melonson from the University of Rhode Island provided thirty-two people in front of Makaron Mountains with tomato sauce and urged them there until they felt full. For the first time women had to eat as quickly as possible, the second time when they needed to put the spoon down for a few moments after each piece. The results are undeniable:

with slow eating, they ate 579 kilocalories in 29 minutes;

with a quick meal, a woman ate an average of 646 kokalorius in 9 minutes.

"They ate 67 Kokilorius more than 29 minutes in less than a third of the time," concluded Melonson. "If you calculate the total number of their number for three meals, it appears an impressive figure, namely as 200 kilocalories per day and more than 6000 kokalorius per month. It corresponds roughly to the energy expenditure in three days Eating finished, consuming more than people who eat slowly each month for three daily diets.

Fall number 4: give me everything!

American Marketing and Applied Economics University Brown-Inssink has found evidence that the man eats more than the volume of dishes the food is in. During the experiment, the scientist treated visitors in popcorn, which was in cups of different sizes. The trick was that popcorn was five days old, non-jammed, hard, and tasteless. But the participants in the experiment who were given large cups did not prevent them from eating 53% or 173 coco calories, more those who were given small cups. When asked about it, you could imagine that so many eat only because of the large sizes of the most popular cups that responded: "No". Some even said, "Impossible. That can't happen to me." Other experiments have shown that those who bought for sale or with good discounts, especially large packaging products, ate it all.

If you treat a person with a plate of soup that it is imperceptible to pour into all the time, he will get bored until he ends up not eating a double or even a triple portion. Such a great desire to leave the plate empty.


Chapter 3. Drug Products


Have you ever wondered if the tobacco industry and the food industry are connected? And how?

Two scientists - Miki Chopra, a sociologist sociologist from the South African University of the Western Cape, and Yang Darrton-Hil, the Columbia University of Professor Nutrition in New York, compared two types of industries and found no significant difference. They concluded that "the universal excess epidemic and the world smoking epidemic are extremely similar."

Food manufacturers earn more on sugar and animal fats than vitamins and minerals. And these animals can cause fat and sugar addiction. Darnton Hill and Chopra warn, "People don't respond to raw signals when they consume huge amounts of sugar and fats." The predominance of these substances in food products is already reminiscent of the cigarette strategy to mix different chemicals into the tobacco to improve the effect of adding nicotine.

Addiction to food, drugs or something else implies the presence of strong motivation to consume his addiction. This is a strong, obsessive desire that underlies fiction, differs from physical addiction at least in the fact that the latter is characterized by Abstrapition Syndrome. Many of the exciting substances are typical of how they create a second desire and the cancellation syndrome (for example, a smoker into smoker, a shudder from an alcoholic convulsion, convulsions from a drug addict, in the event of a dose failure). These manifestations of cancellation syndrome are associated with different brain centers than those responsible for the addiction. At the same time, the cancellation syndrome can be absent. The meaning is that even if a person doesn't wake up shaking and in a cold sweat on the fact that they missed the dose, depending on the sugar, chocolate, or cheese, they may be addicted.


Chocolate addiction?


The boost for chocolate is due to its delicate taste and texture.

Scientists from the University of Michigan decided to do an experiment. The goal was to reveal the secret of chocolate. 26 people took part in the experiment. They were given the medicine "naloxone" (antagonist opioid receptors, used as an antidote for opioid overdoses). Other volunteers were offered a basket with sweets: chocolate cookies, bars "Snickers", candy "M & M s", biscuits polished with chocolate. Any other day, candy would have disappeared in a moment. But Naloccon suppressed their action. And they became unsightly for volunteers. Blocked by naloxone, the opiate chocolate effect from the trays "M & M's" and "Snikhersov" were eaten twice less, and the chocolate chip cookie "Oreo" - 90 percent less.

Chocolate stimulates the opiate brain receptors and blocking these receptors turns off the main components of chocolate attraction.

Factors that provoke chocolate addiction

The first factor that causes chocolate addiction is psychological. During the chocolate commercials that are often televised, many people have a resilient desire to eat with chocolate. Especially when the chocolate is at home with a person and the thought of that delicacy does not give him peace. Psychological addiction is only the tip of the iceberg, however, and the real causes of chocolate addiction run much deeper.

The point is that the main component of any chocolate is cocoa, which contains substances that stimulate the production of dopamine hormone, which causes the feeling of happiness. As a result of research carried out by a famous British psychologist D. Benton, it has been shown that chocolate is an excellent antidepressant and stops and prevents the development of depressed states.

Another factor that contributes to chocolate addiction is the high sugar content in this product. When we feel the fatigue and deterioration of forks in these moments, the blood level in the blood is reduced and our organism sends signals in the form of chocolates to fill the missing amount of sugar and restore vitality.

Chocolate also contains phenylethylamine, or FEA, an amphetamine-like substance, but ten times less than cheddar cheese or salami. In very small amounts in chocolate there are substances associated with an active ingredient in marijuana (TGK) with an active ingredient in marijuana. What is common in chocolate and marijuana? That's what scientists discovered. The brain cells normally produce the chemical anandamide, which is known to be found in TGK. Some substances contained in chocolate delay the breakdown of anandamide in the brain, so the pleasant effects of this substance on the brain keep more natural

So chocolate is not a type of drug-like substance, it is a pharmaceutical warehouse: some light, caffeine, amphetamine-like substances, the equivalent of marijuana haze - everything is packaged in a soft, sweet taste

Is it true that chocolate makes us happier? Partly yes. As a result of researching a group of people who recognized themselves as "ChocolateOgoLics", it turned out that they definitely experienced a feeling of satisfaction. At the same time, their pleasure has died with a sense of guilt not typical of those who occasionally shame chocolate.

sugar


In the depressed state of the people, especially in sweet pull themselves. When sugar is found in the body, sugar is instantly in the blood, and the person feels calm and slippery. After a short time, the level of sugar in the bloodstream decreases: insulin, developed to cleanse the body of consumed sugar, begins to clear up glycogen reserves (sugar already in the blood), and the liver begins to send a signal to the brain with Help, help - and the person feels tired and longing again.

A vicious circle arises: the more Zuckermann consumes, the lower the blood sugar level and the greater the need for a new dose of sugary products.

Looks like a drug action. A sugar is accompanied by a brief euphoria that quickly replaces the apathy and irritability that a person always wants more of the same sugar.

A study was done keeping rats on a diet that included 25% sugar. When the sugar was removed from the ration by rodents, symptoms "broke", like trembling and dental crosses.

It is important to note that if a woman consumes sugar during pregnancy, then her child will be saccharine before birth.

If the baby falls on the tongue with sweet, sour, salty, or bitter water, it will only show a positive reaction to sweet. The reason for such a preference is because evolution has given us an instinctive understanding that sweet foods are a reliable source of energy, while bitter tastes are linked to dangerous food health. Other scientists suggest that the love of sweetness is placed in the womb and linked to the taste of spindle water. Perhaps both points of view are correct because they do not contradict each other.

In addition, it has been found that the effect of addiction occurs. If a great dose of sweets is offered in the form of sweetened tea or juice from the start, then in the future it will be inclined to abandon drinks with lower sugar content.

So if a person gets used to the high dosage of sweet initially, it will be difficult to reduce in the future. It doesn't matter whether the product contains sugar or agave juice, honey or aspartame - a sugar substitute.During the period of puberty a person discovers other reactions to himself, but his deception, but his deception too sweet, remains as he was put in infancy and supported in the child's permanent "education".

Women are primarily prone to sweet consolation. There are many reasons for that. As a rule, women are allowed to be poorly expressed, for example, by a sense of self-worth, which, as we learned above, the desire to enjoy deliciously. In addition, she is often more comfortable and pleasant than men in childhood. They regularly receive chocolates or sweets when they cry or are just sad. Unlike guys who are cute to get mostly as a reward for a good act, such as the top five in math or for the fact that he washed his plate. Girls, therefore, remember that sweet is what helps to overcome a bad mood, so in adulthood, when it gets sad, resort to the right medium. No wonder that the crisis in personal relationships is poured from the feminine side into the "vacation" of chocolates, cakes and puddings from the feminine side.

But that's not all. The University of Glasgow research team found that after using a large volume of sugar, women do not refuse a full lunch or reduce portions. Sweet and greasy cupcake per afternoon Snannar does not apply to the evening to have a solid meal in the evening.

This fact shows that their natural appetite control is likely already out of control.

Sweet little comforts, men. Strong soil prefers meat and fatty foods. They seldom experience a huge desire to eat chocolate or other sweets to taste pork leg or a large piece of cheese.

According to statistics, men use meat on average 20% more than women. With her mental health in mind, her "consolation of meat" is similar to the use of candy in women.

"Those who don't like it are sweet, can achieve peace with fat," says neurobiologist Guther.

What is dangerous sugar intake.

First, sugar reduces vitamin B1 levels in the body as it is required to be assimilated. The disadvantage of B1 leads to neurasthenia, depression, rapid fatigue, muscle weakness.

In addition to B1, sugar removes calcium and other minerals from the body, depletes protein stocks.

Sugar weakens the immune system because of the ability of white blood cells to kill microbes.

Sugar consumption leads to tooth disease, as it creates an ideal medium for the spread of microorganisms that destroy teeth, as well as due to the decrease in the internal circulation of fluid in the teeth.

Sugar causes an exacerbation of heart disease, reduces life expectancy and contributes to the development of obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, duodenal ulcer.


cheese


The American scientist Dr. Neil Barnard argues that cheese addiction can be caused due to the fact that the substance of kazomorphin, which is very similar in composition in composition, can be produced in composition of cheese protein and goat, which is very similar in composition to morphine . And just like in the case of opium, when exposed to the brain, this substance sets up mechanisms in it so that you can feel a great deal of pleasure. In addition to using cheese, the brain gets used to these signals, it unambiguously associates them with the product - and here the person can do without a piece of cheese.

In addition, other praying substances can be found in the cheese, for example the psychedelic effects produced by phenylethylamine (it also contains and can become addictive to chocolate and sausages).


flesh


Most doctors call people to limit or eliminate meat consumption in the first place. That’s good reasons. A large number of deaths are mainly related to mainly meat feed. Cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, kidney disease, obesity, food poisoning and many other diseases are several times more common than among those who do not use meat.

The nutritional value of meat is due to its full-fledged proteins, which contain indispensable amino acids (valine, leucine, isolucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, phenylalanine) and lipid, which contains essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Meat is one of the main sources of phosphorus in food; With meat, trace elements and vitamins are inscribed in the human body. Extractive meat substances improve the taste of food, stimulate the appetite, strengthen the secretion of the digestive glasses.

The attractiveness of oily food is fully justified from a biological point of view. Fat is the highest calorie content of a product (one gram of fat contains nine calories, for comparison: one gram of a carbohydrate or protein contains only four calories). It is believed that as our biological species evolved, these people who knew where more calories knew i.e. H. They stretched out to eat a low-fat diet, had a better chance of survival when there was a lack of food. Nature and did not suspect that in the future the desire for greasy food will lead the poor of hamburgers, fried chicken and another looming fat and filling cholesterol from food. About 20-70% of the calories in meat come from pure fat. Love for meat and at the same time with fried potatoes, onion rings and other high fat foods due to the evolutionary path of mankind that forced us to prefer high calorie foods. The banality of habits also plays a latter role. Scientists believe that once we get used to fatty food, see it on their plate every day, we start to love and want it.

Interestingly, there may be another side to the habit of meat. The results of experiments show that, like sugar and chocolate, meat can also have drug-like properties. When researchers blocked volunteers' naloxone receptors, meat products partially lost their appeal. For example, a group of Scottish scientists found that while neutralizing the opiate-meat effect, the appeal of ham to participants was reduced by 10%, the boost in salami was reduced by 25%, and purely gastronomic interest in tuna was reduced by 50% . Apparently something like this happens: if the meat turns out to be in the brain, then opiates that encourage people to be released into the brain - legal or improper - for high calorie food choices, and it means that the person is the person concerns Introduce it to the habit.

Scientists are looking for another key to rounding off meat addiction. It turns out that meat provokes unexpectedly strong insulin emissions than cookies or bread. This fact was surprised by food. Insulin, in turn, is linked to dopamine relaxation in the brain. Dopamine is assigned under the influence of a drug: opiates, nicotine, cocaine, alcohol, amphetamines, etc. Dopamine activates the center of pleasure in the brain.

It is known that carbohydrates are sweet and strong foods - in the process of digestion, natural sugars break down on the molecules. As these molecules drop into the bloodstream, they stimulate the emission of insulin hormone, which sends sugar into cells. Protein also provokes an insulin surge. During the scientific research, volunteers were offered a variety of meals and brought blood for analysis every fifteen minutes for the next two hours. Meat causes a noticeable increase in insulin levels. At the same time, beef and cheese cause greater insulin emissions than pasta, and the fish is larger than poproot.

Lyric Retreat: Soon Meat Will Be From The Test Tubes!

In 2008, an animal rights group offered $ 1 million to someone who would offer a way to make meat "out of a test tube" which is indistinguishable from the present. At the same time, it shouldn't be expensive to be successful in the market. In theory the idea is good, but so far no one has been able to complete the task.

Scientists long started developing this idea about ten years ago. First, the technology was invented to produce food for astronauts.

How it is done? Stem cells from a living animal biopsy (or a piece of meat from the killed animal) and place them in a three-dimensional growth environment - a kind of scaffold made of proteins. A mixture of nutrients made up of glucose, amino acids, and minerals, stem cells multiply and differ in muscle cells, which ultimately form muscle fibers. These fibers are then collected as minced meat products.

It is possible, but not now. We still need time to do research that will confirm meat is suitable for a person.

Chapter 4. Types of Food Behaviors


There are currently three types of food behavior:

restrictive food behavior.

emotocyogenic food behavior

external food behavior


Restrictive food behavior.


This behavior is characterized by chaotic, inconsistent restrictions in food (to reduce the amount of calories to achieve or maintain the desired weight) that are not maintained by patients, leading to the development of the "diet supplement". People who limit themselves in food ignore the internal signals of hunger (or thirst) and stick to the low-calorie performance mode, which is supposed to lead to weight loss.

"Dietary depression" is an emotional instability that arises against the background of adherence to the hard diet. A person constantly faces a feeling of fatigue, increased fatigue, irritability, anxiety, aggression, feeling of internal tension, depression, etc. "Dietary depression" results in a refusal to continue eating and to recruit the painful overeating. This can include the appearance of a gupf feeling, a decrease in self-esteem, disbelief in the possibility of healing.

Many studies show that having a distress (type of stress characterized by the greatest severity, having a significant negative impact on the body, a disorganizing effect on a person's activity and behavior) in those who observe diets, the amount of food increases, and those who fail to do the opposite decrease. There are several hypotheses that explain this phenomenon.

) Avoidance theory. Dieters want positive attitudes towards themselves. They believe that other people are critical of them and pay attention to their behavior. This in turn harbors negative self-assessment and depression. The intensity of such negative experiences is reduced in the episodes of overeating, in which the focus of attention is narrowed to simple actions and feelings. It was established experimentally that the physical threat greatly reduces food intake in people who do not adhere to the diet and slightly increases those who fulfill the diet, while the threat to the ego easily suppresses the appetite from non-diet and strongly rejects food behavior in people with limited food behavior.

2) The Boundary Model - was proposed to explain the process regulation process. According to this model, between the states of hunger and satiety, which controls the acceptance of food and its physiological basis, there is space that is under the influence of cognitive, rather than biological, factors. The limit of hunger and satiety is determined by the individual characteristics of a person. People who watch the diet have lower lower bounds of hunger and higher saturation boundaries than those who do not meet the diet. It turns out that people who watch diet to control their weight "impose another upper limit, which is much lower than the biological limit of satiety and is of purely cognitive origin. When a person that one If he wants to observe diet, he only stays with the biological limit of saturation that is with him, which is above that of a person who is not on a diet. This phenomenon has been called "counter-regulation", which means, that those who observe the diet are really consciously regulating their food intake and tend to move with the weakening of self-control due to the stressful experience.

) Masking hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, a person observing a diet uses the overnight stay to mask the effects in some other areas of life. That is, he explains this need by overeating. As a result, the real problem masks the overeating problem.

) Distraction Hypothesis: People who watch diet enjoy eating food so much that it distracts them from concerns and problems.

) Hypothesis comfort. According to this hypothesis, food consumption causes comfort. Food is used for consolation.

Restrictive food behavior and nutritional compliance are not exactly similar concepts. Dietary restrictions can be classified according to their degree of flexibility, and on this basis the risk of episode of overeating and the success of the diet can be assessed. Features are characteristic of restrictive food behavior as strict calorie counting, strict exclusion rules from the diet of certain products and frequent use of the diet. Such an inflexible and uncompromising approach to diet monitoring increases the likelihood of passing over. The flexible control includes larger behavioral options, e.g. B. a promising diet plan to break the size of the parts, slow down the food process, while the consumption restriction is not rigid. People with a more flexible approach to dieting tend to realize that they are likely to plug the episodes and take that fact into account by compensating for the episodes of overeating.


Emotocyogenic food behavior


The emoozyogenic food behavior is characterized by meals on the background of emotional complaints. Usually people respond to the stress of loss of appetite. However, there are those who react on the contrary, overeating. Such people seem to be "stressful". Emotocyogenic food behavior is a kind of pathological form of protection against stressful states, very socio-oriented, mentally immature personalities, prone to anxious depressive reactions. The biochemical basis of food emotional behavior has been studied, related as studies have shown a lack of monoamine CNS, especially serotonin. Patients with emotiogenic food behavior prefer high calories, rich in carbohydrates. The increased flow of carbohydrates leads consistently to the development of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The high level of insulin increases the permeability of the hemeratorephalic barrier to tryptophan. TripoTofan is a sulfur-based serotonin, so the level of the latter in the central nervous system is normalized, patients experience emotional comfort. It should be borne in mind that SEROTONIN deficiency leads not only to the development of emotional food behavior, but also causes a number of comorborde obesity disorders: depression, phobias, aggressiveness, obsessive-banking manifestations, insomnia, psychological disorders, pre-spirits syndrome, seasonal affective Diseases and algic syndromes. It also allows the use of carbohydrate foods through the same mechanism to reduce the severity of these disorders. Conversely, sharp elimination of such foods not only leads to the maximum increase, not only appetite, but also diseases, the patient develops the above-mentioned "Dietary Depression".

A distinction is made in the context of emotional food behavior:

paroxysmal form (compulsive food disorder)

dinner syndrome

seasonal affective disorder

Differentiator. paroxysmal form. It is the liability of food receipts. Epipal episodes arise in limited periods of time (no more than two hours) during which the patient eats a certain amount of food than in the normal time.During the attacks, the patient loses control over the use of food, eats faster than usual, without feeling hungry, stops only after the appearance of an unpleasant feeling of stomach overflow. The episodes of overeating are due solely to the fact that the patient feels the inadequacy of his behavior and shy him; Against the background of the attack of overeating, he creates a feeling of disgust for himself, depression or a feeling of guilt. The attacks are repeated at least twice a week for six months. In such patients there is no insufficient compensatory behavior (vomiting, large doses of drainage and diuretic preparations after attacks), which usually gains weight. The frequency of overeating constructions is closely related to the emotional sphere; Negative experiences provoke new attacks. If, for people with persistent emotiogenic food behavior, eating serves as a source of some positive emotions, then paroxymal patients are extremely painful when they experience their attacks, they are shy, they experience a shame and a sense of guilt, then they make them worse then depressive trends and forms a vicious circle.

Dinner Syndrome It was first described in 1953. Diagnostic criteria for this syndrome:

evening and / or night hyperfagi

tomorrow anorexia.

sleep disorder

The main clinical line of these patients is the inability to fall asleep without becoming, the reception is usually very tight. Patients prefer high calorie foods. Worsening sleep and the increase in night meal episodes arise against a background of negative emotions. Sleep is superficial. The morning appetite is significantly reduced or absent, the type of food can cause disgust. In the afternoon the appetite increases significantly. A pronounced feeling of hunger leads to overeating at night. Saturation is formed extremely slowly. Reception in the first half of the day can cause drowsiness, lethargy, reduced performance, and the restriction of evening feeding leads to a violation of the fall. It should be noted that the overwhelming majority of people with Night Meal Syndrome (80-90%) are women.

For patients with pronounced infertility, the greatest pathological change in the motivational area of ​​behavior with primary biological motivation is hypertrophy (food, drink, sleep) and underdeveloped higher levels of the motivational sphere. These patients are depressed, anxious, prone to reassessing the severity of existing diseases. Aggressive reactions are possible (usually hidden), social adaptation is broken. There is a pronounced dependence on patients from the estimates of the surrounding desire for approval, admiration, attempts to compensate for the lack of an attractive appearance with hysterical reactions.

The main clinical characteristic seasonal affective disorder It is the appearance of symptoms in the dark time of the year and the disappearance of them in a light time. The clinical picture of seasonal affective disorder is manifested by depression, hypermore, daily drowsiness, premenstrual tension syndrome. With this form of emooned food behavior, a reduced background of mood is accompanied by increased appetite and decreased satiety, traction is noted for sugar and fatty foods.

The role of neurotransmitters in the development of seasonal affective disorders is not excluded. It can be assumed that the melanocortic system or a lack of serotonin in the dark part of the year is involved in the formation of seasonal affective diseases.

External food behavior


External food behavior is that there is no physiological sense of hunger for reference to food, and external factors such as the type of food or diet, food advertising, etc. The determining factor is the availability of products. This function is based on eating "for the company", snacks on the street, excessive reception of food visits, buying unnecessary products. An increased response to external stimuli to the appearance of the food is largely due to the lack of a feeling of full satiety. The feeling of satiety arises later in time, the habit of eating quickly contributes to the delaying of a feeling of satiety.


Chapter 5. Types of Food Dependent


There are four main types of food addiction: bulimia, anorexia, compulsive overeating, unspecified food behavior disorders (anything that doesn't fall into other categories). In the international classification of the disease (ICD-10), food disorders are indicated by the F50 code.

Under bulimia is understood the disorder caused by an irresistible desire to eat, overeat, overeat (in a short time a bulimia can eat a large amount of food) and at the same time the desire to lose weight or at least in addition, that is achieved by extreme ways: hunger, active physical activity, laxatives, vomiting.

Nervous anorexia is a deliberate restriction of food for the purpose of weight loss due to the belief in the presence of imaginary or highly enclosing fullness.

Cabinet overeating, the so-called "food drunk", arises in response to stress and leads to psychogenic obesity.

Obesity is not impairment in itself, but primarily, primarily in the first place, obesity is a consequence of compulsive overeating.

About the considered food disorders do not reflect the entire variety of violations. There are many other options for its manifestation. I would like to take a closer look at them below.


Bulimia (nervous bulimia)


Bulimia is a bullish hunger - a violation based on an increasing syndrome with the subsequent cleaning of the stomach. Synonyms: "Abnormal weight control syndrome", "Food chaos syndrome", "Special version of food behavior".

It is possible to determine bulimia from some signs:

.Attacks of gluttony, repeated regularly.

2. Acceptance of inadequate measures related to obesity, for example challenge vomiting, enema, laxatives, diuretics.

A person's figure and body weight have a huge impact on their self-esteem.

.Fear of obesity.

Psychologists point out two possible currents of bulimia: "with cleaning behavior" and "without cleaning behavior". Sick bulimia "with cleaning behavior" to maintain weights, not only fasting, but also vomiting, ENEMA and drugs are used. Patients in the second group maintain weight only at the expense of severe dietary restrictions.

It goes without saying that bulimia is not the common overeating. With the usual overeating, a person is saturated with food and does not sound afraid of obesity and does not use compensatory measures, but enjoys the quality of food, their reception; A man suffering from bulimia ingests food at a rapid pace, practically without chewing it or indulging in taste, while often eating incompatible products; A healthy food does not suppress other needs and ultimately the reason for the usual overeating (upbringing, ethnocultural traits, etc.), while the cause of bulimia is psychological.

In bulimia, increasing the value of food and overeating becomes the only pleasures in life that a boring and non-sensitive person seems to be. Eating for one person acts as an alternative to daily chores, household problems.

Like other nutritional addictions, bulimia manifests mainly in women (in 90-95% of cases), begins in youthful color (15-22 years old) and is the result of intense nutritional monitoring.

Bulimia has three causes among which is organic, social and psychogenic.

Organic reasons of bulimia include various pathologies of metabolism, diabetes, tumor or toxic brain lesions that hid the region of the hypothalamus. Genetic factors also affect the disease: some congenital diseases can affect the structure of the brain.

Social reasons include the attitude of the society a person lives in, the weight of the body. For example, in countries where weight is a significant criterion for evaluating a person, the amount of bullimics increases. If a woman constantly adheres to a strict diet, the fear of buying extra kilograms increases the risk of developing bulimia, since the constant fear of recovery is stressful, which is easiest to film with food.

A psychogenic group of reasons includes various psychological injuries or depression, which is most easily removed by simple pleasure - food. A psychogenic cause can be low self-esteem, a negative outlook on life, and other psychological factors. Often bulimics, fear of obesity, artificially vomiting after meals.

Health problems that develop due to bulimia affect the functioning of the digestive system, cause loss of teeth (as a result of compensatory measures), kidney disease, heart failure.

Interestingly, the weight of people suffering from bulimia does not differ from the norm, which is achieved through compensatory measures. It happens that weight even begins, and bulimia smoothly flows into anorexia ...


Anorexia (nervous anorexia)


Anorexia is a food behavior disorder in which a person voluntarily refuses to eat. A person obsessed with the idea of ​​partially losing weight and then completely refusing to eat in any form that subsequently leads to a fatal outcome.

Today this disease affected all of modern society. They mostly suffer women, but men are also found. First of all, a person attacks various diets, reducing the amount of food consumed, then gradually completely refusing to eat. And this mechanism is impossible to stop without help. Important loss, a person doesn't stop and still refuses. First, this is because no matter how much a person weighs, they hold a fat on their own. Second, even if he is satisfied with his new weight, panicly fear of gaining more kilograms annoys himself. In addition, they worsen with exercise, even if it becomes very difficult and the state of health does not allow them.

The following developmental stages of nervous anorexia are distinguished:

) The initial phase, during which there is a pronounced dissatisfaction with his figure, a striving for weight loss develops against the background of orientation for the developed ideal;

) The stage of active correction, at which the value of nutrition and the formation of deviant behavior decreases: the development of specific weight methods (changing the edible diet, adhering to a strict diet, resorting to physical exercises, receiving laxatives, inserted enema, artificial Providing vomit reflex); Speech behavior changes - in conversations the individual constantly refers to the topic of losing weight, discussing diet;

) The stage of Cachexia, which is characteristic of the appearance of the signs of dystrophy: weight loss, dryness, skin sheet, etc.

The causes of anorexia can vary. The factors affecting such human behavior are hereditary, biological, psychological, social.

Hereditary factor. If one of the loved ones had a case of nervous anorexia in the family, then the likelihood of another condition. But it's so small that it's psychological rather than hereditary: mimicking the behavior of a loved one.

Biological factor. Some scientists argue that part of the brain responsible for appetite and pleasure is subject to some changes. Injury to this brain of the brain causes depression, impaired appetite, nervous anorexia.

Psychological factor. People exposed to this disease, for the most part, perfectionists. They exist either thin or fat. And since they don't want to be fat, they have a way of being thin. For them there is no ideal of beauty, they try to lose weight as much as possible, since they do not, they will certainly get fat. They do not care about someone else's opinion, all attempts to get them into feelings are perceived as envy, delusion. These people are subject to depressive states, despondency.

Social factor. Often anorexic people from families with very strict rules or faulty and disadvantaged families. In the first case, the family is imposed on nutrition and appearance in the family, and a small deviation from these norms due to the individual structure of the body and the body is perceived negatively. In the second case, it may be a mockery of someone from their loved ones about flaws in the character, or the fear of a person as being someone from their parents who does not respond to their ideals.

Very often the development of nervous anorexia is associated with a turning point in life. It can be a change in the place of study, work, sharing with a loved one, etc. The age of puberty is also very dangerous for the development of this disease, since the girls from 14-20 years old suffer from this disease. The person begins to change outwards, the shapes and the weight are changed. And this event is perceived negatively negatively, rejection of its nature. Therefore, it is very important that close close and carefully what happens to your child, sister, brother, relative.

The aftermath of anorexia can be the gentlest. Until death. A modern society knows many examples when great people and women have prematurely exhausted their life, who is exhausted from this terrible disease and destroyed their lives with their own hands.

The effects of anorexia:

Excessive weight loss, muscle mass

Slowing puberty

Complications of the operation of the gastrointestinal tract (diarrhea, constipation, gastritis, ulcer)

Cardiovascular diseases (heart rate violation, low pulse rate, cardiac arrest)

Diseases of the kidneys and a genital system (urinary incontinence, infection, kidney failure)

Bone and teeth disease

Violation of the reproductive system in men and women (impotence, infertility, loss of sexual attraction)

Dry skin and skin diseases

Chronic fatigue, irritable condition, insomnia, convulsions

Depressed states, suicide

In essence, a person suffering from anorexia can go through all of these consequences and ultimately just die. But even if the person stopped in time, the echoes of this terrible disease will be very long, and maybe his whole life will affect his health.

Violations of food behavior on ICD-10 are considered cross-border mental illnesses, among which there is normally no need for involuntary hospitalization. However, with nervous anorexia, the maximum mortality rate is observed in all patients with mental illness. According to foreign authors, the meritions for nervous anorexia reached 30-40% with the observation period for more than 10 years and increased with the duration of the observation.


Compulsive overeating


Many people suffer from compulsive overeating, the disease is widespread. Usually there is increased weight with this disorder, often obesity. However, in some cases, people who do not have problems with weight can also succumb to this disease. It's no secret that many people regularly overlook it. They are also aware of what is being eaten more than is necessary.

However, if a person eats a lot, it does not mean that there is compulsive overeating. According to experts, those people who suffer from overeating always know that he cannot control their appetite.

Signs for which obsessive-compulsive overeating is determined.

The line between compulsive overeating and just having a good appetite is quite unstable, but there are certain signs that suggest the patient has this violation. First of all, such people eat very quickly. They keep eating until they feel uncomfortable. Always choose large portions, even if you do not feel acutely hungry. It is preferable to them alone as they perfectly understand what they overeat and shy away from their overcrowded meal platters.After eating, such patients fell into depression, feeling guilty and born.

Often times, compulsive overeating is due to the presence of another disorder, nervous bulimia.

Who is Subject to Compulsive Overeating?

According to statistics, up to two percent of western residents are subject to the disease, which means that approximately four million people suffer from it. Of that number, up to fifteen percent is obese in a mild form, and many attempts to get rid of the problem on their own use certain therapeutic programs. Basically, however, this disorder is characteristic of people with a severe form of obesity.

Women are sick with compulsive overnight stays more often than men; there are no differences on national signs. Obesity patients with this disorder are usually at a young age, have an excess of body weight. You can take a certain amount of time to follow weight, sit on diets, but most of the time you will gain weight again.


Uncomfortable eating behavior disorders


1. Nervous orthorexia.

This term first hired a doctor from America Stephen Bratman. He said, "Eating is joy - an integral part of a person's life, and any attempt to deny that pleasure will be perceived as a departure from the norm."

At first, a person simply chooses to live a healthy lifestyle and get into a healthy diet. But sometimes the idea of ​​following a healthy route of nutrition leads as much to interest him as a man whom everything else hears. A person is afraid to eat something superfluous, they just wanted to eat environmentally friendly food, only natural. There are many products back - the first of meat, oil, bread, sweets.

Such behavior affects not only a person's physical condition, but also a spiritual condition. It turns into neurotic, very thin, suffering from insomnia, wild fatigue and bad mood.

Chronic malnutrition affects the work of the heart in the first place, because on the background of malnutrition, the amount of potassium kalsium in the body is reduced. And the lack of calcium leads to premature wear and tear on the joints. Of course, the bowel is working poorly and the stomach is suffering.

.Prader-Willy Syndrome

This is a rare genetic disorder in which approximately 7 genes from the 15th chromosome inherited from the father are not expressed. Around the fourth year of life, the child differs in an increased appetite. He eats but is not satisfied. Then the lag in mental development begins to be observed. It is very important to diagnose the disease on time, otherwise the patient can "die". Medical treatment treatment (hormonal drugs) and with diet therapy.

Geofagia

Geofagi is used in food that is inedible: ash, paint, earth and so on. This also includes the habit of pregnant women. In fact, geophagy is obtained from the necessary minerals, but you can eat eggs and pesticides, and eat helminth.

Electoral disorder

Failure to eat for certain products i.e. limited product list and reluctance to try new types of food. The principles of choosing products can be any: from their color to type.


Chapter 6. Study.


Questionnaire on the tendency towards food addiction


It is believed that people are most susceptible to food addiction, women. I conducted a survey among my friends and their acquaintances. I interviewed a total of 31 people, including 17 - female and 14 - male. A questionnaire was used that showed the tendency towards food addiction (see Appendix 1). From the point of view of the authors, a normal person does not have to achieve more than 5 points, ideally 0. That is 5 - it's like a threshold. The questionnaire consists of 18 questions and implies the answers "yes" and "no".


Table 1. In addition to the food dependency depending on the soil.