How did colonization begin

colonialism

a "dominant relationship between collectives in which the fundamental decisions about the lifestyle of the colonized are made and actually implemented by a culturally different and hardly adaptable minority of colonial rulers with priority given to external interests" (J. Osterhammel). The spectrum of forms of the K. ranges from the destruction of the pre-colonial system of rule and the colonialists to take over the administrative and power structures, to the establishment of indirect control of the colony to secure its own economic interests, to the exertion of repressive pressure by the colonial power. For the period since the end of the 19th century, K. is referred to as imperialism, whereby all political efforts can be subsumed under this that a state undertakes to create and maintain an empire. In islam. The colonial era began in the 16th century when Portugal founded individual branches in the Indian Ocean. At the beginning of the 17th century, the Netherlands acquired parts of Southeast Asia, while France invaded the Senegal region. In 1760 the British began to penetrate the north Indies. Bengal region. In the eastern Mediterranean, Napoleon's invasion of Egypt (1798) caused the Muslims. Areas certain tremors, but did not lead to a permanent occupation of the country. In 1830 the French occupied Algiers while the British were able to occupy political supremacy in northern India. Between 1830 and 1880 Egypt had to open up its economy to European interests and largely lost its state sovereignty. At the same time, colonial borders were established in Asia and Africa, which would last for a long time. The Russian tsarist empire advanced into the Caucasus and Central Asia, France conquered West Africa and the western Maghreb (1881 Tunisia, 1912 Morocco), and in 1882 the British occupied Egypt. Here - as in Morocco and Algeria - the new colonial rulers found proto-nationalists. Structures that contributed to the fact that the inhabitants of these areas saw the colonial rule as unlawful more than elsewhere. A new surge of colonization began after the First World War with the division of the Osman. Rich one. Syria and Lebanon came under French, Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq came under British administration. The K. had its greatest expansion in history in the 1920s. The colonial powers seemed to want to establish themselves in their colonies in the long term. The administration was arranged and standardized according to "scientific" criteria, the infrastructure in the regions was greatly improved and a colonial export economy was established, which forced the colonies to assume the status of raw material suppliers for the developed industries of Europe. Although these efforts continued after the Second World War and z. In some cases, the “decolonization” of the so-called Third World began. The League of Nations mandates in the Middle East were lifted and most of the colonies granted independence: 1945 Indonesia; 1946 Syria-Lebanon; 1947 India; 1948 Israel; 1952 Libya; 1956 Tunisia and Morocco; 1957 the «Malay Federation»; 1962 Algeria. The K. and the associated conviction of the colonial rulers of their own cultural superiority since the end of the 19th century have in the indigenous. Cultures leave clear traces. Contact with the expansive western civilization led to a change in consciousness. It is true that there has hardly ever been a complete overthrow of pre-colonial worldviews and lifestyles, but a questioning of what is taken for granted by culture can be observed. The processing of the confrontation with European thinking has led to fundamental mental changes in both the individual and societies, although Western ways of thinking have not been able to assert themselves unbroken.

Literature:
Kiernan, VG: European Empires from Conquest to Collapse, 1815 - 1960, 1982. - Dirks, NB (Ed.): Colonialism and Culture, 1992. - Osterhammel, J .: Kolonialismus, 1995. - Bentlage, B. (Ed.): Colonialism and Culture, 1992. - Osterhammel, J .: Kolonialismus, 1995. - Bentlage, B. (Ed.) ): Religious dynamics under the impact of imperialism and colonialism. A sourcebook, 2016.

Author:
Prof. Dr. Stephan Conermann, University of Bonn, Oriental Studies

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.