Where is Fantarai



  • Otto von Kotzebue
  • Comments and views from the expedition's naturalist, Adelbert von Chamisso.
  • Tenerife.
  • Brazil.
  • Chili.
  • Chapter 6
  • Notes from the missionary, Father Alday.
  • Overview of the great ocean, its islands and shores.
  • The Philippines Islands.
  • The Mariana Islands. - Guajan.
  • As to our knowledge of the first province of the great ocean.
  • Radack, Ralick, Repith-Urur, Bogha, the Cornvallis Islands.
  • The Carolina Islands.
  • Chapter 14
  • The island of Romanzoff.
  • Chapter 16
  • The Sandwich Islands - the Johnstone Islands.
  • Chapter 18
  • Meteorology - magnet.
  • About the coral islands.
  • About the rock texture of the New Californian coast, the island of Unalaschka and the coasts of the Beerings Strait.
  • Chapter 22
  • Natural history and physiological remarks on the sea bubbles, velelles and porpites by Friedrich Eschscholtz.
  • Description of new foreign butterflies with illustrations by Friedrich Eschscholtz.
  • Remarks on the foregoing observations on the specific gravity of sea water at different latitudes, and on the temperature of the ocean at different depths,
  • Postscript.
Author page

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As to our knowledge of the first province of the great ocean.

New sources. - Kadu, Don Luis de Torres. Geographical overview.
(With a card.)

After the lost discoveries of Saavedra 1523, Villalobos 1542, Legaspi 1565 and others. After the discovery of the Carolina, (perhaps Eap) by Lazeano in 1686, the Jesuit Paul Clain in the Philippines collected in 1697 the first definite information about the islands, which were subsequently called the Carolines, from the natives of these islands, which the storm had brought to Samal. At the same time we learn that those islanders often visit these coasts, now by chance, now deliberately.

with the Serrano map, which deserves no attention.

The zeal for mission awakens, all monarchs of the earth are called upon to be conducive to the dissemination of Christ's teaching. Various ships are being fitted out in Manila, which is keeping a fate friendly to the people, preserving their happiness and independence, from their destination. Finally, the fathers Cortil and Duperon landed on Sonsorol in 1710. Wind and electricity immediately removed the ship; the missionaries are deserted and every further undertaking to come to their aid is thwarted.

Father Jean Antonie Cantova, on Guajan 1722, collected the most complete information about the Carolines from devious islanders from Ulea and Lamureck, and drafted a map of these islands that deserves all attention; his heart burns to spread the gospel to them.

with the card

The historians of Manila have carefully compiled these stories from the sources.


We borrow what follows from the latter:

Cantova succeeds in being sent to the Carolinen peoples. He was brought from Guajan to Mogmug with Father Victor Uvaldec in 1731 and a mission was founded on the island of Falalep. Father Victor makes a trip to the Mariana Islands; when he returned with new help for the mission in 1733, the place where it had stood is devastated and desolate. He continues his arduous journey to Manila. “You learned from a prisoner whom you kidnapped that ten days after Father Victor's departure on July 9th, 1731, Father Cantova was called to supposedly baptize an adult to Mogemug. He went there with two soldiers and found everything in arms. They pretended that he wanted to introduce a new law against the old and their customs, and stabbed him with three lances, two in the sides and one in the heart, they also killed the two soldiers and threw them into the sea. But they exposed the priest, admired that he was so white, and buried him under a little roof. So they bury their own dead; the priest was treated as a prince, the soldiers as men of the people. Afterwards they suddenly attacked those who had stayed behind on Falalep, they could only use their little cannons in a hurry !! so they killed four Indians and wounded others with the sword, but their defense was in vain. All the Spaniards who were on the island, fourteen in number, were killed and only a young Tagal, the sacristan of the father, whom the chief of the island had adopted in place of his son, was spared.

The same prisoner testified: that the confidante of the father, a name Digal, whom he had baptized in Guajan, was the chief instigator of this rebellion. "

So the story of the missions on the Carolinen ends.

We later get to know a single group of these islands:

Burney, in the first chapter of the fifth volume of his chronological history of journeys, reports extensively from the sources as to the Carolinen. - At the death of Cantova, he cites a memorandum from the Governor of the Philippines, which we did not see. This fifth chapter contains a complete account of our geographical knowledge of the islands which the Spaniards understand by the name.

We find ourselves compelled to include the Carolines, to which the Pelew Islands and the groups located to the west are to be included, with the islands located almost at the same latitude to the east, up to those which Krusenstern, named after their main discoverers, the Gilbert and Marshal Called islands, and to unite with the Mariana Islands in the north of the Carolines under one point of view and under the name of the western or first province of the great ocean.

In his contributions to hydrography, Leipzig, 1819, Krusenstern collected the discoveries made by the new seafarers in this sea line under various main sections, from pages 94 to 121, and treated them with great erudition. He used them in particular.

Tuckey (), by failing to state the sources according to which he determines the position of the islands in dispute (Lamurca, Hogolen), has robbed his work of all reliability and

Arrowsmith with the seems to us of greater authority.

This is the place where, after our own experiences and collected news, we are preparing to report, especially about the islands and peoples of this province, to give an account of the new sources which we bring to their knowledge.

It is these sources, the communications of our friend and companion Kadu, and those of D. Luis de Torres on Guajan, which follow Cantova's letter and card.

At the beginning of 1817 in the far east of this province on the Otdia and Kawen group of the Radack island chain, we had made acquaintance and made friends with the lovely people who inhabit them. When we then entered the Aur group of the same chain of islands, the natives came to meet us on their boats and, as soon as we dropped anchor, stepped aboard our board, a man emerged from among them who distinguished himself in many ways before them. He was not regularly tattooed like the Radacker, but wore indistinct figures of fish and birds, individually and in rows around his knees, on his arms and on his shoulders. He was more compact, lighter in color, and had frizier hair than she was. He spoke to us in a language that, different from Radack, sounded completely foreign to us, and we immediately tried in vain to speak to him in the language of the Sandwich Islands. He made us understand that he was disposed to stay on our ship and to accompany us on our further voyages. His request was gladly granted. He stayed with us from the hour on, went ashore on Aur only once on vacation and stayed with us, our loyal companion, equal to the officers and loved by everyone, until our return to Radack, where he came with a quickly changed resolution to settle down to be the resident and dispenser of our gifts among our poor friends. Nobody could be more permeated by the philanthropic spirit of our mission than he.

Kadu, a native of the Ulea archipelago, in the south of Guajan, of not noble birth, but a confidante of his king Toua, who had his orders on other islands done by him, had on earlier trips the chain of islands with which Ulea operates, in the west to the Pelew Islands, in the east to Setoan. He was on a last trip from Ulea to Feis, with two of his countrymen and a boss from Eap, who wanted to return to his fatherland, when storms pulled the boat off the road. - The seafarers, if we believe their unreliable calculation of time, erred eight moons in the open sea. Three moons reached their scantily saved supply; they received five moons, without fresh water, only from the fish they caught. To quench his thirst, Kadu, diving into the depths of the sea, fetched cooler and, in her opinion, also less salty water, in a coconut bowl. The northeast trade wind finally drove them onto the Nur group of the Radack chain, where they thought they were to the west of Ulea. Kadu had heard from an old man on Eap, news of Radack and Ralick: Sailors from Eap are said to have once been directed to Radack, namely to the Nur group, and from there found their way back to Eap via Nugor and Ulea. The names Radack and Ralick were also known to a native from Lamureck whom we met on Guajan. Boats from Ulea and the surrounding islands are often sent to the eastern chain of islands, and five natives from Lamureck still live on the southern Arno group of the Radack chain, who have shared the same fate there.

The chiefs of Radack protected the strangers against the lowly-minded of their people, whose greed had irritated the iron they possessed. - One always meets the noble minds among the chiefs.

The inhabitants of Ulea, who live in greater prosperity and more extensive traffic than the Radackers, are superior to them in some respects. - Kadu had a certain reputation on Radack. When we visited these islands he might have been there for about four years. He had two wives on Aur and one of them had a daughter who was already beginning to speak.

Our appearance spread horror and consternation in Aur, where news of us had not yet risen. The well-wandered, well-experienced Kadu, who was on a remote island of the group at the moment, was immediately fetched, and his advice was sought on how to meet the mighty strangers, who were inclined to be regarded as evil ogreers.

Kadu had learned a lot from the Europeans without ever seeing one of their ships. He encouraged his friends, warned them of theft, and accompanied them to our ship with the firm resolve to stay with us and in the hope of getting back to his dear fatherland through us, since a European ship had once been in Ulea , at a time when he himself was absent.

One of his compatriots and fate companions who was with him tried in vain to dissuade him from this plan, and his friends stormed him in vain with fearful speeches: he was imperturbable at the time. Another companion, Kadus, the chief from Eap, whom we met in the retinue of King Lamari near Udirick, made the same decision, the same hope, as our friend. He was a feeble old man, and his request was not heard. It was difficult for him to be able to leave our ship, whereupon he insisted in tears in the calm situation through which he sought to make us sensible of his resolution. We introduced him to his age and the troubles of our journey; he stuck to his senses; we introduced him to the fact that our supplies were only calculated for a certain number of people. He urged us to leave our friend Kadu here and take him in instead.

We must praise the easy and proper way in which Kadu has known how to submit to our world. The new circumstances in which he found himself placed were difficult to judge, to deal with. He, a man of the people, was suddenly seen among the strangers so much superior in power and wealth, like one of their nobles, and the lower people of the sailors served him as the chief. We will not withhold mistakes which he was tempted to make at first, but which he made up for too quickly and easily to deserve severe reprimand. - When, shortly after his admission among us, Chiefs von Radack came on board, he stood up against them and accepted the duties that befit them only. An innocent pampering on her part was his well-deserved reward. - It didn't happen a second time. At first he tried to imitate the gait and manners of the captain, but he refrained from doing so. It is not surprising that at first he regarded the sailors as slaves. He once ordered the attendant to bring him a glass of water, who took him quietly by the arm, led him to the water barrel and put the vessel in his hand, from which others drank. He went inside himself, and studied our circumstances and the spirit of our customs, in which he soon and easily learned to put himself in the position and to find it, just as he knew how to appropriate our outer decency in life and at the table.

Kadu only gradually got to know the power of our spiritual beverages. It is said to have been noticed that at first he let the sailors give him brandy. When a sailor was punished thereupon, it was indicated to him that this was happening because of secretly drinking the fire (name with which he referred to the brandy). He never drank brandy again, and wine he loved only with moderation. The sight of drunk people he had on Unalaska made him self-aware of himself. - In the beginning he conjured the wind in our favor, according to the custom of Eap; we smiled, and he soon smiled at these incantations, which from then on he only repeated out of joke and to entertain us.

Kadu had spirit, understanding, and wit; the closer we got to know each other, the better we would win him. It was only in his lovely character that we found a certain indolence to fight against, which opposed our intentions. - He just liked to sing or sleep. When we tried to get news from him about the islands he was traveling or of which he knew, he only answered the questions we put to him, and did not like the same question twice, answering what he had already said had related. If, in the course of the conversation, something new was conveyed to the light, which we told him to have kept secret, he would reply calmly: "You didn't ask me that before." And his memory was not sure. The memories gradually revived in him, just as the event evoked them, and at the same time we thought we noticed that the multitude and variety of objects which occupied his attention obliterated earlier impressions in him. The songs that he sang in various languages ​​and had learned from the peoples among whom he lived were, as it were, the book in which he sought information or evidence for his statements.

Below us, Kadu held his journal after Moons, for which he tied knots in a string. However, this journal seemed to be kept in a messy way and we could not find our way out of its calculation.

He was not dishonest, not without a thirst for knowledge. He seemed to understand well what we were trying to make clear to him about the shape of the earth and our nautical art; but he was without persistence, tired from the exertion, and evasively returned to his songs. He took some trouble to learn the script himself, the secret of which he had grasped, but was unskilled at this difficult attempt. Whatever he was told, with the intention of cheering him on, might well have completely deprived him of courage, he interrupted and resumed his studies, and finally put it aside entirely.

He seemed to understand with an open mind what we told him about the social order in Europe, about our manners, customs and arts. But he was most receptive to the peaceful adventurous spirit of our journey, with which he combined the intention of telling the discovered peoples what was good and useful to them, and by this he understood mainly what serves for food, but he also recognized that ours Superiority was based on our greater knowledge in general, and it honored and served as much as possible our sense of research, where it would also have seemed very moderate to some of the more educated among us.

When we arrived on Unalaska, and he had looked at this orphaned earth, bare of all trees, he hurried busily to ask us to bring some Cocos that we still had on board, and for which he wanted to give him special ones, appropriate here Places to sow. He urged us to try, pointing out the misery of the inhabitants, and was reluctant to be persuaded that it was completely superfluous.

Most of the time, nature captured his attention and curiosity.The cattle on Unalaska, which first reminded him that he had seen them earlier on the Pelew Islands, kept him busy, and he followed them daily, looking at them, in the pasture. Nothing on the whole trip excited him more than the sight of herds of sea lions and fur seals on the island of St. George. When we returned to the ship from the island of St. George, we talked about the sea lions, whose gait and voice were imitated with a witty skill, and Kadu delighted himself and us, he was asked with probable seriousness whether he also had their nests and eggs under the rock inspected on the beach? However inexperienced he was in the natural history of mammals, this question alienated him, the joke of which he immediately discovered and laughed heartily.

Just as Kadu carefully picked up and stored away neglected pieces of iron, broken glass and everything we overlooked that might be of value to his compatriots during the trip, so on Unalaska he sought out stones that were especially suitable for grinding stones among the debris on the bank. We have seen this meek man only once in restrained anger, in rage; That was when in the course of the voyage he looked in vain for these stones in the place where he kept them on the ship and the complaint he made about them was hardly heard. He was offended in his legal sense.

Kadu was generous in his poverty and appreciative in his heart. He served those of us from whom he had received presents and used the opportunity on O-Wahu to give counter-presents to us and the sailors who had served him through the sensible trade he did with the small goods with which we enriched him to offer how they would like to be pleasant to everyone in their own way. He put aside nothing for himself but what he once hoped to enrich or delight his countrymen with. So he had left everything he owned to his friends on Radack and reserved only one jewel for himself, a necklace that he wore among us for a long time. He once trusted us with wet eyes, smiling, the secrecy of this collar. He fought in the battle on Tabual (island, the Aur group of Radack) in the ranks of his host friends, against the enemy who had invaded from Meduro and Arno; then he gained the advantage over his opponent, and was about to pierce the man who had fallen at his feet: when his daughter jumped out to save him and held back his arm. She received her father's life from him; this girl promised him her love, he, the man, secretly carried handsome presents over to her, and he carried, in memory of her, the pledge of love that she venerated for him on the battlefield.

We must particularly emphasize two traits in Kadu's character: his deeply ingrained disgust for war, the murder of humans, and the delicate shamefulness that adorned him and which he has never denied among us.

Kadu hated bloodshed and was not cowardly. On the front of his chest he wore the scars of the wounds he had received in the war of defense on Radack, and when we were preparing for a landing on St. Lawrence Island with weapons, and he was instructed that this would not happen to an enemy Attack, but for self-defense in the event of an emergency among a people, whose sentiments are unknown to us and with whom we are only disposed to act for mutual benefit, he wanted weapons, a saber, with which he could help us if necessary, since he was still going not sufficiently trained in shooting on Unalaska. - He cherished the opinion which he had impressed on Eap, that gray hair only grew because one witnessed the men’s battle in its horror.

In relation to the other sex, Kadu wore an exemplary gentle tenderness. He stayed away from the woman who was in the possession of another man. Everywhere he had a real measure of what was decent. What he learned on O-Wahu resisted him and he spoke freely about it, as well as about the immorality that he found prevalent in the Pelev Islands. Drawn into free conversation with men, he knew how to enter it in such a way that he always remained within the limits indicated to him.

One finds the liveliest sense and the greatest talent for wit among the peoples who are least alienated from nature, and especially where the mildness of heaven allows man an easy, enjoyable life. Kadu was particularly witty, but knew how to observe appropriate barriers with innocent jokes, and he knew with great skill how to reconcile those that he enjoyed with superiority through easy services or gifts.

Our friend testified to us repeatedly in the course of our journey that he was determined to stay with us until it reached its destination, and that we should find our beloved fatherland Ulea ourselves, not to leave us, but to accompany us to Europe, from where we are We were allowed to promise him his return to Ulea, since the trade regularly leads our ships to the Pelew Islands, where the boats from Ulea run regularly. We were still ignorant of the other way via Guajan. But he had the wish, and this would have come true on Guajan, to find an opportunity on one of the islands known to him to report to Eap about the fate and the present stay of the chief of this island, his unfortunate companion on Radack, with it , he said, the people built a ship for his family and came to see him there. He preoccupied himself with this thought.

On O-Wahu we endeavored to bring together useful animals and plants, saplings and seeds of various useful plants, the species of which we wanted to try to introduce on Radack. Kadu knew we were going to approach there and persevered in his mind. We asked him to inform himself here in everything that could be of use to Radack, since he could instruct our friends and teach them what advantage they should derive from our gifts and how they should look after them. He did go along with our intentions, but the purpose was still too far from him, and recklessness and indolence let him use a period of apprenticeship in this voluptuous stay, the failure of which he later regretted himself. Kadu had learned to communicate easily with the O-Waiher, and he himself drew our attention to the similarity of different words in their language, and in the languages ​​of the islands of the first province.

We came to Radack and landed on Otdia, to the cheering of the few of our friends who did not go to war with us. From that moment on, Kadu was tirelessly busy with the most insidious of planting, sowing, and taking care of the animals, and giving us advice and action, and explaining to the natives what was necessary and inculcating them. - He was still determined to stay with us.

When everything was necessary on Otdia, Kadu went to Oromed, the island of the old chief Laergass, to plant a garden there. Only the author of these articles accompanied him on this excursion, which was carried out in Radacker boats. On Oromed the hours of the day went to work, those of the evening to pleasant company. The women sang to us the many songs which were composed for us during our absence and in which our names were consecrated to memory. Kadu told them about his travels and added joking fairy tales to his story; he distributed gifts which he would prepare for his friends in the course of the journey. As soon as the next day, the last of our stay on Radack, the boat that led us back to the ship was under sail, Kadu, whose cheerful mood turned into quiet seriousness, declared that he was now staying on Otdia and not going any further with the Rurick. He expressly instructed his friend to announce this new, unchangeable decision to the captain, and refusing to object, he explained the reasons which determined him. He would remain on Otdia, the guardian and caretaker of the animals and plantations, which without him would be neglected out of ignorance, and would perish without any benefit to the foolish people. He wanted to ensure that our gifts provided the needy Radackers with sufficient nourishment, so that they would not have to kill their children out of necessity, and would refrain from doing so. - He wanted to work towards the restoration of peace between the southern and northern groups of Radack, so that people no longer murder people; - if animals and plants were sufficiently multiplied, he wanted to build a ship and go to Ralick to spread our gifts there too; - he wanted to give the captain back everything he received from him, just a shovel to work the earth, and to ask for this and that useful tool. He would hide his iron from the mighty Lamari and, if necessary, defend it. In his undertaking he counted on the cooperation of his compatriot and fellow destiny, whom he wanted to call from Aur, where he was now. He should also bring his child, his daughter, with him, who, as he now learned, had been sad since his departure, asked for him, screamed for him and refused to sleep. - His wives had taken other men, only his child occupied him most tenderly.

Kadu regretted many useful things at this time, the preparation of the bast witnesses for O-Wahu, among other things. m. to have neglected to learn, and in these last moments he wanted much more advice, which he took with great attention.

The boat on which we made this voyage against the wind was a bad sailor, the sun was already tilting towards the horizon when we got to the ship, on which luckily the captain was. When Kadu's decision became known, he soon and unexpectedly found himself in possession of infinite treasures, such as arouse the covetousness of princes and nations in this part of the world. ϰμητον δε σιδηϱον The love he enjoyed among us was made known, and everyone was seen quietly busy increasing the heap of iron, tools and useful things that were brought together for him from his own supply (samples of mats and Witnesses from O-Wahu, samples of straw hats and the like were not forgotten.)

When Kadu was busy tying up his bed, his clothes and his underwear, which he was now keeping, in a bundle, he carefully separated his winter clothes and offered them as a present to the sailor who had served him, which he should, however, accept refused.

The sun had already set when Kadu and his wealth were brought ashore. The time did not permit him to draw up any written testimony or to leave it behind. Only an inscription on a copper plate on a coconut tree on Otdia contains the name of the ship and the date.

Before the assembled inhabitants of Otdia, Kadu was appointed as our man, to whom our animals and our plantings were ordered, and who, moreover, was entrusted with our gifts to Lamari. It was promised that we, who have already come to Radack three times, would return after a while to look after him and to be accountable. To confirm this promise and as a sign of our power (up to then we had only given signs of our gentleness and friendship), when we returned to the ship in the dark of night, two cannon shots and a rocket were fired.

When we weighed anchor the next morning, our friend and companion was busy with the animals on the bank, and he often looked over at us.

One of the songs that Kadu often sang among us glorified in the language of Ulea, the names Samuel, Bormann, (he pronounced Moremal), and Luis. This song referred to the European ship that Ulea visited at a time when Kadu himself was traveling. Waghal appeared in the tales of Kadu as a large country, where cattle were available, iron and other riches in abundance, where King Toua had once made a journey and from whence he brought three two-pound cannonballs home.

As soon as we landed on Guajan, we recognized that daring in this island and the Luis of that song met us in a friendly manner in the person of Don Luis de Torres, whom we here, commemorating him with deep love and appreciation, post the following messages.

Luitovergleiche Espinosa, near Krusenstern: Contributions to Hydrography p. 92. listed. a seafarer from the islands in the south of Guajan, whose fame lives on among his compatriots, found the way from Waghal or Guajan in two boats in 1788, a song of which seems to have been preserved from ancient times. Because of the success of the first voyage, and the reception he found, he returned with four boats in 1789, and asked the governor to return annually. The four ferrymen, as they were preparing to return home, split over the rumble they were supposed to steer - they parted. The sea never gave back any of its to its homeland.

The traffic that had begun was then interrupted.

In the summer of 1804, the ship Maria departed Boston, Capt. Samuel Willams Boll, Supercargo Thomas Bormann, set out from Guajan to look for the Trepang on the Carolina Islands. Don Luis de Torres climbed aboard the Maria as a passenger, hoping to see the islanders he had come to love again, to show them good things, to find out why they failed to visit Guajan and to persuade them to return.

On this trip the following were determined geographically, according to Don Luis' diary:

A shoal of 24 fathoms at 8º 20 'N.B. and 149º O.L. of Greenwich.

The desert island of Piguelao (D. L. d. T) Bigellé (K.) in 8º 6 'N. B. and 147º 17' O. L. (missing from Cantova.)

The shoal of 12 fathoms under the same width halfway to the desert island of Fallao, (D. L. d. T.) Fahneu, (Cantova) Fayo (K.), at 8º 5 'N. B. and 146º 45' O. L.

The small lower group Farruelap, (D. L. d. T.) Faroilep, (Cantova) Fatoilep, (K.) at 8º 3 'N. B. 144º O. L. and finite

the group Guliai, (DL d. T.) Ulee, (Cantova) Ulea, (K.) Ola, (after the pronunciation of Radack) in 7º NB and 144º OL in which group Maria penetrated and where she stayed for some time .

Don Luis de Torres, on Ulea, whose language he understands and whose lovable people he values, has used the opportunity to teach himself thoroughly and sensibly with the most educated of this people, and the kindred peoples with whom it associates. On Ulea, according to the most experienced seafarers of the natives, and taking into account the Rumben to which they sail, he has drawn up a map of all the islands known to them, the correspondence of which is striking with the map of Cantova, which is unknown to him. Since then he has lived in constant contact with his friends there on Guajan, and every year he saw the skilful ferrymen who lead the merchant squadron from Lamureck to Guajan. - We regret that we only had such fleeting moments to draw from the treasure trove of his experiences and news, which he so lovingly revealed to us, and we expect the French expedition under Capt. Fraycinet, who is promised a longer stay on Guajan, and with whose learned participants we talk about this subject at the Cape, a gleaning which can be far richer than our harvest.

Don Luis de Torres learned on Ulea that the absence of Luito in 1789 had been misinterpreted by the Spaniards on Guajan. The islanders, learned better, promised to resume the interrupted trade and kept their word.

A passenger on board the Maria, an Englishman whom D. Luis Juan calls, settled on Ulea. After his return, Kadu knew him there under the name Lisol, he had taken a wife and fathered a child with her. According to his reports, at a time when Kadu was away again, this Lisol was picked up by ships. After the inquiries made about him by D. Luis, he died on Ulea.

On this trip Don Luis de Torres sought to introduce the species of cattle and pigs and various usable crops on Ulea. - As a result, the natives deliberately exterminated the cattle and pigs because they were not only useless but also harmful to them. The cattle grazed the young coconut trees, the pigs endangered the taro plantations. - Of the plants only the pineapple had gotten away; As it bore fruit and people were happy about it, they have used the plant that everyone wanted to own so often that it finally ran out.

Since D. Luis's trip, no new accident has interrupted the resumption of traffic. The Carolinians come every year more numerous against Guajan. Your squadron, consisting of boats from Ulea and surrounding groups, from Lamureck and Setoan, assembled in Lamureck.From there the journey is undertaken in April, counting to Fayo, the desert island, on which one lingers for a few days, two days crossing, from Fayo to Guajan three days. The return journey is also via Fayo and Lamureck. Your time is in May, at the latest in June, before the westerly monsoon, which is to be feared, can set in.

Kadu mentioned to one of the chief's operations on Fatoilep that he would sail directly to Waghal (Guajan) from this group. He wandered a long time at sea and, without having found this island, finally arrived at Moge-Mug, from where he returned home.

The squadron missed Guajan once, and drifted under the wind of this island. At times the ferrymen saw their mistake and reached their destination, moving against the wind, only with some delay.

This long journey was once made by a very small boat that only carried three people. It sailed better than the two larger vessels with which it came. The ferryman Olopol from Setoan brought it to D. Luis as a present. Olopol died in Agaña, we saw the boat ourselves.

Toua, Don Luis de Torres calls him Roua, as he calls Rug the island that we write after Kadu Tuch. the king of Ulea himself came to Guajan in 1807.

It was also in this year, or in the following year, that a boat was brought to Guajan from the eastern island of Tuch. There were fifteen people on board, the pilot's name was Kulingan. The strangers were welcomed well, but a procession which took place these days, and which caused artillery volleys, spread fear and terror among them. They hid in the forest, and that night, stripped of all supplies, went out to sea again. - Fortunately for them, on this escape they met the arriving flotilla from Lamureck, which supplied them with provisions and gave them the instructions they needed to return home.

The squadron was eighteen sails strong in 1814.

The Carolinians exchange iron, glass grains, cloths and so on for boats, shells, and the governor of Guajan sends them to Manila, where they get our museums and collections. and rarities, the trepang can become a more important branch of their trade. - You yourself will be received in the most hospitable manner by the natives during your stay on Guajan.

Don Luis de Torres took over with pleasure to let the friends of Kadu on Ulea report his fate and his stay and to send them our gifts on his behalf.

Don Luis de Torres also gave us news of a high, large island of unknown name, which was owned by the Brigandess San Antonio de Manila, Capt. Manuel Dublon was seen traveling from Manila to Guajan on December 10th, 1814 at 7º 20 'N. B., 151º 55' O. L. A very high mountain rises on it.

We had heard Kadu sing a song by Feis, which referred to a ship with which the islanders had traded in sight of their island without it being stopped. It sang the names of Jose Maria and Salvador. We learned on Guajan that in 1808 or 1809 the Modesto of Manila, Capt. Jose Maria Fernandez, who went to the Pelev Islands to collect Trepang, missed them and came into view of Feis. When the Modesto subsequently reached the Pelew Islands, one of the natives from Feis, with whom one had communicated at sea, was found there; the latter had hurried ahead of the ship to continue the trade. - The governor of the Mariana Islands, D. Jose de Medinilla y Pinedo, was on board the Modesto. - We tried in vain in Manila to collect further news from this trip.

We are still here telling our friend Kadu an incident which may arouse interest. - Once on Eap, six white people wearing clothes arrived on a boat assembled with wooden pegs, without iron. This boat was otherwise built in the European style. The strangers were received hospitably. One of them, named, was adopted as a child by Laman, the chief of the Kattepar region. He stayed on the island when the other five went back to sea after a stay of a few months. Kadu, who came to Eap shortly afterwards, knew him. He went naked on the island and had a tattoo on his loins.

The Radack island chain will primarily concern us. We shall supplement what our own views have taught us with Kadu's reports, to prove their reliability, the last visit we made to our friends gave us the opportunity.

Next to Radack are of course:

The Ralick island chain, which is located close to the west, is well known to the Radackers.

The islands of Repith Urur and

Bogha, of whom people lost at sea brought the news, and

The islands, discovered by the Cornwallis frigate in 1809, which Arrowsmith for Gasparrico is inclined to look at the old maps. A desert group north of Radack that we visited again.

The island chains Radack and Ralick lie in the sea line that the Marshall Islands (and the nearest islands) occupy.

Capt. Marshall at Scarborough and Capt. Guilbert in Charlotte, saw the same islands in 1788. The first, followed by Krusenstern, gives them (n. F.) A more westerly position than the second does, whose original maps and journals Arrowsmiths owns and follows. One cannot undertake any geographical-scientific work on the islands of this stretch of sea without using these documents. With the differing determinations of the two captains and with the other names each ascribed to the islands, it is a difficult task to compare their statements with each other and with the discoveries made by other seafarers, which are left to more competent geographers. They may decide which of the islands, which are listed here only under the name of the natives (these are still in existence), earlier became known to our seafarers, and which of the islands they saw, although near Radack, the Radackers nevertheless remained unknown. The seafarer, who contented himself with arbitrarily naming the islands he finds and whose location he determines, draws his name on the sand. He who learns and preserves the real names of his discoveries secures his work and really helps to perform the building to which the other only reaches stones.

We found no knowledge of the Gilbert Islands, that is, of islands in the south of Radack, among the Radackers. They want to move Repith Urur there, as we think for some reasons (the course of the winds, etc.) inadmissible.

In Marshall's reports, the southern and northern chain of islands he discovered appear to be similar in every respect and inhabited by the same people, except that the southern islands are more fruitful and populous than the northern ones, as we have found it on Radack itself and like us everything invites to assume that it is the case on all archipelagos of this stretch of sea.

and from Alvaro de Saavedra 1529 are located under the latitude of 7º-8º or 10º N. probably far to the east of Radack. The description of these islands, which have disappeared from our maps, and those of their inhabitants, urges us to remember them here.

We observed nature ourselves on Radack and lived with the people. Familiar with this nature and with this people, the news that we have to convey from the Carolines will come before our eyes more vividly.

The Carolina Islands will be the subject of a separate essay. With our friends Kadu and D. Luis de Torres from Ulea we shall endeavor to survey the surrounding islands, and we shall pursue a lovely people who are only versed in the arts of peace on their courageous journeys. We shall carefully compare our reports with those of the Jesuits, and especially with the respectable reports of Cantova.

We here only enumerate these islands, and communicate the geographical remarks that are presented to us. This part of our work, like the map of Tupaya and the news which Quiros collected from the natives of Taumaco and other islands, may contain hints which future seafarers might not seem entirely unworthy of the attention.

The attached cards by Cantova and D. Luis de Torres will help to clarify our news. The cited discoveries of the innovators can be looked up in the sources or in the aforementioned hydrographic works and in particular on the maps of Arrowsmith and Krusenstern.

Ulea (K.) Ola after the pronunciation of Radack, Ulee (C.), Guliai (T.) and 7º N. B. and 144º O. L. after him. (The Thirteen Isles of Wilson at Duff 1797. 7º 16 'N. B. 144º 30' O. L. (?).

A main group of lower islands. - The names of eleven islands are recorded on Cantova's original map; Kadu has given us four and twenty and ignored the less uninhabited ones. Namely:

After Kadu.After Cantova.
After Kadu.After Cantova.
Piel and
Residence of Toua the chief of
Island chain and homeland of Kadu.

Fatoilep, (K.) Farroilep, (C.) Farruelap, (T.) and after him 8º 30 'N. B. 144º 30' O. L. located. Seen from Cantova by Juan Rodriguez in 1696 between 10º and 11º AD.

A small low group of three islands.

The bank of St. Rosa, near the south coast of Guajan, whose existence is particularly evident in Dampier in the property in 1686 and repeatedly in Juan Rodriguez in 1696, is no longer found, and the Maria sailed away by name in 1804 over the place it occupies on the maps .

Uetasich is, according to Kadu, a shoal in the north of Ulea, which the seafarers who come from Feis can use as a symbol not to miss Ulea. However, you won't see Uetasich on this trip if you just steer properly. The water is colored white. The sea does not ripple.

Eurüpügk (K.), Eurrupuc (E.), Aurupig (T.) A small, lower group of three islands, two of which are very small, not far from Ulea, to K. and C. to the west to T. facing south.

The 1791 on Arrowsmith's map seem to us, albeit remote, to be mentioned here at least. Compare also Sorol.

The following four form a chain that runs from Ulea to C. to the east, to T. to east-south-east, to K. towards sunrise.

Iviligk (K.), Iseluc (C.), Iselug (T.) (the thirteen islands or the two lower islands of Wilson?)

Lower archipelago.

Elath, (K.) Elato, (C.) Elat (T.) (the two lower islands of Wilson?)

A small low group where only the island it's named after is sizeable. Smaller ones are four to five in number.

Lamureck, (K.) Lamurrec, (C.) Mugnak, (T.) Lamursee near Krusenstern, often also called Lamurca, Lamuirec or Falú near Gobien and on the map of Servano. (The six islands of Wilson?) Luyto (near Krusenstern) gives the number of islands to 13.

A main group of lower islands. The names Puc, Falait (Falu, Serrano?) Toas and Uleur on the map of Cantova must be related to individual islands of the group, perhaps also Olutel, although it is deposited with Elato.

That of Cantova does not appear in either Kadu or D. Luis de Torres.

Setoan, (K.) Seteoel, (C.) Satahual, (T.) (Tucker's Isle Wilson at 7º 22 'N. B. 146º 48' O. L.?)

A low, large isolated island.

Ollimirau, (K.) Olimarau, (C.)

A minor minor group that is missing from D. Luis de Torres' map. Kadu places it in the east of Setoan, Cantova in the northwest of Lamureck, halfway to Fayo, a location that must be incorrect because it is not touched on the journey from Lamureck to Fayo and Guajan, and it remains if our interpretation of Wilson's Islands is correct, there is no room for any other group between Lamureck and the more northerly desert islands. We would look for Ollimirau east or northeast of Setoan.

Fayo, (K.) Faheu, (C.) Fallao, (T.) and after him located at 8º 5 'N. B. 146º 45' O. L. Fayo would therefore be 43º N. and 3 'W. from Tuckers Island and if the Swedes Islands are Lamureck, the journey from this group via Fayo to Guajan would be incorrectly divided into two and three days, one would have to reach Fayo in one day . We note that the journey from Fayo to Guajan, a distance of about 7 degrees, or 360 miles, in three days or 72 hours, requires a run of five knots, which is five miles, or five quarters of German miles an hour.

An uninhabited island without fruit trees and sweet water, which only swells in the pits after the rain. They visit those from Fatoilep, Ulea, Iviligk, Elath, Lamureck and Ollimirau to catch turtles and birds.

Bigellé (K.) Piguelao, (T.) and after him in 8º 6 'N. B. 147º 17' O. L. is absent from Cantova.

Another similar island, which is also visited for hunting, from Elath, Lamureck and Ollimirau.

Oraitilipú, (T.) is a shoal of 12 fathoms between the two aforementioned islands at 8º 6 'N. B.

Another shoal of 24 fathoms was determined by D. Luis de Torres at 8º 20 'N. B. 149º O. L.

The islands mentioned so far form the second province of Cantova, which at that time was divided into the two kingdoms of Lamureck and Ulea, but now recognizes the Tamon or prince of Ulea as the sole ruler. This Tamon, with the name Toua, is also recognized on several of the more eastern islands, which Cantova counts as its first province, and especially after Kadu, on Saugk, Buluath and the high country Tuch. According to D. Luis de Torres, these islands will not fall to his heir on Ulea after the death of Toua and this Neptunian empire will fall apart.

The same language is spoken on all the islands of the second province of Cantova.

The news of the more easterly islands, which at Cantova, called the first province of Cittac under the prince of Torres or Hogoleu, are the most fluctuating and unreliable, and it is difficult to illuminate their geography.

Kadu had not been to any of these islands himself; it has five archipelagos or islands follow, always after the rising sun from Ulea, or in a slightly southward leaning direction.

Saugk, (K.) Sog, (T.) Scheug, or the situation according to Schoug. (C.)? Low group.

Buluath, (K.) Puluot, (C.) Poloat, (T.)

A reef where only the island of that name is inhabited. - Saugk and Buluath still have the language of Ulea.

Tuch, (K.) Rüg, (T.) Schoug or the situation according to Scheug, (C.)?

The only high country that Kadu's News mentions in the east. Cloth has very high mountains, a pic after D. Luis de Torres. The inhabitants live at war with the islands from far away, (Giep and Vageval). Their language is very different from that of Ulea, D. Luis de Torres calls it his own. Kadu has socialized with residents of Tuch and Buluath on Ulea, where they pay tribute and trade.

Savonnemusoch and

Nugor, rich lower archipelagos, which Kadu relocates far away to the same part of the sky. Each should have its own language. One could recognize in the name Nugor, Magor (T.) Magur (C.).

Toroa and

Fanopé are, according to Kadu, low archipelagos, which are well known to the inhabitants of this last island because of the seafarers who often came to Buluath from there. After a short stay on Buluath, several of these strangers tried to find their way back to their homeland. They had arrived at Buluath after a month's odyssey. The language of Ulea is spoken in Toroa and Fanopé.

In a song of these islanders, which Kadu learns from people from Buluath on Ulea, the news of

Malilegotot, a remote, low archipelago, which they probably became familiar with through a boat that was slung from there. A separate language is spoken there and the residents are supposed to eat human flesh. (We are reminded of Repith-Urur der Radacker.)

Wuguietsagerar, is a very dangerous reef, the one of Buluath well known and to which they seem to orient themselves in their trips. It is said to be a considerable distance from their island. It forms a half circle in which it would be very dangerous to get caught. You have to avoid the entrance and leave the whole reef aside.

Giep, (Cuop (C.?)) And

Vageval, lower archipelagos are a great distance from cloth and at war with this island. Kadu has no further news about it.

Lomuil and

Pullop, are the names of islands that he once remembered hearing in Ulea. The map of D. Luis de Torres coincides with that of Cantova in the main layout of the islands of this eastern province, as in most of their names. When he first designed it, the main island of Torres or Hogoleu was missing, (C.) which is also recorded on the map of Serrano under the name of Torres and of which the news from Kadu mention nothing. But after he added the 29th islands of Monteverde (in S. Rafael 1806.) according to their stated length and latitude to the same, where they then roughly filled the eastern position in the circle that forms the province of Cittac, which Hogoleu occupies near Cantova , the experienced ferryman Olopol from Setoan named these islands with the name Lugulus, in which one must perhaps recognize Hogoleu.

Cantova has 19 islands, Don Luis with Lugulus only 16; He lacks five in number, as they close the circle in the south-east near Cantova, and he has three new ones in the rest of the area, for one that he lacks. Namely:

to Cantova:according to D. Luis de Torres:
  1. Torres or Hogoleu in the east and from there northward following the circle.
  2. Etel.
  3. Ruac (4 d.)
  4. Pis (2 d.)
  5. Lamoil (7 d.)
  6. Falalu (6 d.)
  7. Ulatu (8 d.)?
  8. Magur (9 d.)
  9. Uloul (11 d.)
  10. Pullep (12 d.)
  11. Puluot or Iguanas,
    in the west initially against Setoan (14 d.)
  12. Temetem (13 d.)
  13. Schoug (16 d.)
  14. Scheug (15 d.)
  15. Pata
  16. Peule
  17. Foup
  18. Capengeug
  19. Cuop.
  1. Lugulus
  2. Pis (4th C.)
  3. Lemo.
  4. Ruac (3rd C.)
  5. Marilo.
  6. Felalu (6 C.)
  7. Namuhil (5th C.)
  8. Fallao (7 C.)?
  9. Magor (8 C.)
  10. Pisaras
  11. Olol in the west, initially Setoan (9 C.)
  12. Pollap (10 C.)
  13. Tametam (12 C.)
  14. Poloat (11 C.)
  15. Suction (14 C.)
  16. Rug to the south from where the circle remains open.

The comparative overview given by the attached maps leaves us with no further argument.

Cantova ascribes to its province of Cittac a single language different from that of Ulea. On the other hand, Kadu's testimony is predominant, at least with regard to Buluath and Tuch.

Cantova let us see, far to the east of Cittac, a large number of islands indefinitely, among which he only names Falupet (Fanope K.?) And describes them more precisely. The hayfish should be worshiped there! Seafarers from these islands, who have been moved to the more western ones, have spread the word about it.

We return to Ulea, from there to count the chain of more western islands.

Feis, (K. and C.) Veir after the debate by Radack, Fais, (T.) Pais, map of Serrano - seen by the Nassau fleet in 1625? lies in the north-west of Ulea and the journey there, which seems to be one of the worst, requires fourteen days, according to Kadu's testimony, to which we, moreover, do not attach blind faith. Feis, though of the same formation as the rest of the lower islands, is higher and far richer in fruit than all. Three islands or areas are called: Litötö, Soso and Vaneo. The head of Litötö is an independent prince of Feis.

Mogemug, (K.) Mugmug, (T.) Egoi or Lumululutu, (C.) (He gives the first name to the western islands of the group or the islands below the leeward, and the other to the eastern or islands about the wind.) Los Garbanzos on his improved map and discovered by, Ulithi in Eap, from 1712, the group on which Cantova went as a missionary and found death.

A major group of lower islands and probably larger than Ulea. It lies between Feis and Eap at a short distance from both and recognizes its own head.

Cantova writes down the names of three and twenty islands, Kadu names six and twenty of them, among which the most of Cantova can be recognized. Namely:

to Cantova.to Kadu
Clay big

Feis and Mogemug make up the third province after Cantova, which is assigned its own language. But there the language of Ulea is spoken only with very few changes.

Eap, (K.) Yap (C.) Yapa (T.) in the note. Seen by the Nassau fleet in 1625, by Funnel and his companions in 1705 and by the Exester in 1793, after whose determination it is now put on the cards.

A tall and sizeable island, but like the Pelev Islands, it does not have very handsome mountains. Otherwise she was under a head and enjoyed the peace. Now war is raging between the chiefs of the various areas of which Kadu counted 46. Namely:

i.a. Smaller islands along the coast of Eap have no names or inhabitants.

Eap has its own language, which is only spoken in the following group.

Ngoli, (K.) Ngolog, (T.) Ngolp, (C.)

A small inferior group a short distance from Eap to the south and on the way to Pelli. It has only three islands, of which only the one after which the group is named is inhabited and does not have more than thirty inhabitants. The names Petangaras and Laddo at Cantova refer to the other islands in the group and the name Laddo has triumphed on some newer maps (e.g. Burney).

Between Eap and the Pelew Islands, can be compared with Ngoli: The islands 1528,. 1542, the islands seen by Hunter in 1791, and the islands seen in 1796. Hunter's seem to us to correspond most closely to Ngoli's position. - Burney probably relates the 1526 to the Spaniard 1802, situated further west than the Pelew Islands.

Pelli, (K.) after the pronunciation of Ulea, and after him more correct Walau; Pannog (T.) Paleu and Palaos (C.) The Pelev Islands H. Wilson. - from 1542. from 1579?

An archipelagus of high islands, divided into two realms, which are continually at war. The Pelev Islands are well known to us and are regularly visited by our ships. - The language is its own, and even the people seem different from the Carolinians in some respects.

Don Luis de Torres' map is limited here, and Cantova only has the St. Andres Islands in the southwest of the Palaos.

Kadu still counts in this direction:

Lamuniur, (K.) Lamuliur P. Clain.

Compare the dubious islands of St. John.

Sonsorol (K.) and, as also stated on the card enclosed there; Sonrol at Cantova, both names retained.

Kathogube, (K.) Codocopuei, (C.)

The latter two are the islands of St. Andres, on the first of which the missionaries Cortil and Duperon were left behind in 1710 and have disappeared. They appear in the mission reports as islands of one and the same group, and Kadu, who separates them and specifies their distance from one another in day trips, probably has no authority here on islands that he has not visited himself.

Wull, (K.) Poulo and Pulo of the mission reports, according to which it is located south of Sonsorol.

Compare Current island from Carteret.

Merir, (K.) Merieres of the mission reports, according to which she is S ¼ SE of Sonsorol.

Compare Warren Hastings Island.

The names of the last two islands, Pulo Maria and Pulo Ana on the map too. Pulo Anna and Pulo Mariere on other cards are composed corruptly from different languages. The Malay word for island is familiar to Europeans in the Malay archipelago.

All named islands in the southwest of the Palaos are low islands or archipelagos whose peaceful and friendly inhabitants speak the language of Ulea. The events at Sonsorol, where islanders from Ulea and Lamureck served the Spaniards as interpreters, confirm Kadu's statement.

After Kadu the Kauffarthei boats go from Ulea to these islands and especially to Merir over the chain of the more northerly islands, as we pursue them from Ulea. But you come back from Merir to Ulea by another route, namely over

Sorol or Sonrol, (K.) (not the Sonrol of the St. Andres Islands.) Zaraol, Cantova, according to which it is under the rule of Mogemug and fifteen hours away. It is drawn on his card, but the name is left out.

A small inferior group of two islands to the south and not too far from Mogemug.

Compare the Phillip Islands from the Capit. Hunter 1791, and the 1791, which we have already cited with more probability in Eurüpügk.

According to the legends of Kadu, Sorol seems to have been populated from Mogemug and to have been under their rule. Now it is almost depopulated. These legends also mention:

Lügülot, a lower group of islands, from which a boat, which to

Umaluguoth, a remote desert island where turtles were caught, was found on Sorol. The strangers carried out the robbery. The quarrel which therefore developed was bloody. The chief of Sorol, and seven men and five women of his own, were killed; on the part of the strangers against four men. Later on, quite a few of the residents of Sorol went by boat who did not return there. In the end only one man and a number of women remained on the group.

We can make a guess as to the location of these islands.

Don Luis de Torres enabled us to seek the discoveries of Wilson on board the Duff's in 1797 under the Corolines, and we tend to be in his populous and affluent Thirteen Islands group, although the number of islands, of which he counts only six larger does not arrive to recognize Ulea. If we are not mistaken in our assumption, the chain of islands runs from Ulea to Setoan, (thirteen islands group and Tucker's island) below the seventh degree north latitude, from west to east, in the direction it has on Cantova's map, and not from WNW to OSO as drawn by D. Luis de Torres. This chain also occupies only about three degrees of longitude instead of extending more than five degrees.

From the statements of the natives, the relative position of the islands in relation to one another can be more easily deduced than their distances. The rhombuses can be given with certainty, the distances only in terms of the time required for the journey, and even in this all the measure of time is missing here. Cantova, like D. Luis de Torres, seems to have started his map from Ulea, which he had properly set down in the south of Guajan. Both had certain points for the western part, between which they could only arrange the remaining islands. Not so for the eastern part, where space was open to them without limits. One can only admire the accidental coincidence of the standard which they put on. If we now have a right to apply the tapering scale, which Wilson's discoveries give us to the province of Cittac, it should be sought between about 148º and 152º OL of Greenwich, and the 5½ and 8½ NB be. And we find, in fact, that several islands have been found by our seafarers within the indicated limits. Namely:

The Capit's. Mulgrave in 1793 and seen by Don J. Ibargoitia in 1801, the latter (without giving reasons) and Arrowsmith take to be the Quirosa or St. Bartolome, a large, moderately high island that Quiros discovered after the death of Mendana in 1595. We note that low archipelagos must be close to the west of the Quirosa.

The island of Cota 1801.

A low island, seen in 1796.

Los Martires.

The Shoal by D. Luis de Torres in the Maria 1804.

The anonima of Espinosa's card.

And the high country of M. Dublon in St. Antonio 1814.

The meeting of Monteverde with Lugulus in the map of D. Luis de Torres is to be taken as a delusion. We, on the other hand, are not unwilling to unite with Burney Hogoleu and the Quirosa, but we believe that we must move this island westward from the place where he sets it, and where the lower group of St. Augustine by F. Tompson in 1773 really lies. The location of the island of Dublon, which is described as cloth with a high pic, seems to correspond to the Quirosa or Hogoleu, in that Ibargoitia recognizes the Quirosa in an island that seems to occupy the place in which we would have been looking for cloth.

In the east of Cittac there is a gap of about 15 degrees up to the island chains Ralick and Radack, in which the vague news from Cantova suggests some islands, and in which our navigators have actually already discovered several. We only notice that under it, to the east, there are still high islands than there are, (Teyoa from Arrowsmith), which is said to rise to a high mountain, and Hope in 1807. St. Bartolome's Island of Loyasa 1526 is more to the north. Also a high country, in the west of which there are low islands. The islands seen by the Nassau fleet have been erroneously referred to.

The boats from Ulea and Eap provinces that end up on Radack teach us that the monsoons go much further east than we thought.

The seafarers of these islands, who find their way from Radack to their fatherland again, and on the other hand to the Philippines, and return from there, show us that their shipping covers an area of ​​about forty-five degrees of longitude, which is almost the greatest latitude of the Atlantic Ocean is.

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